Acute Kidney Injury – AKI

Summary Acute Kidney Injury – AKI¬†(formerly more commonly Acute Renal Failure) is a sudden decline in renal function significant enough to produce¬†uraemia, and also often¬†oliguria¬†‚Äď a urine output of <400ml/day.¬†It normally occurs over a...

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Anaemia of Chronic Disease

Introduction Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) is common, particularly in the hospital setting. It occurs as a result of: Chronic infection Chronic inflammation Neoplasia Chronic kidney disease The anaemia is typically: Normochromic – the...

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Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract

Summary The kidneys develop from metanephros. The bladder and urethra develop from the urogenital sinus The prostate develops from an outgrowth of the urethral epithelium Ureters These enter the pelvis at the pelvic inlet,...

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Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)

ADPKD is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the presence of cysts in both kidneys. The cysts are numerous and fluid-filled, resulting in massive enlargement of the kidneys, often with progression to renal failure. The disease...

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