RCC – Renal Cell Carcinoma

Introduction This is an adenocarcinoma These arise from the proximal tubular epithelium. The tumours are highly vascular, and microscopically, they will appear as large cells with clear cytoplasm. Haemorrhage within the kidney gives it...

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Renal Physiology

Introduction Cortical nephrons make up 85% of nephrons. Juxtamedullary nephrons make up 15% of nephrons. There is a visceral epithelium that covers the glomerular capillaries inside Bowmann’s capsule. This is just one cell thick,...

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Renal Replacement Therapy

Introduction The different types of renal replacement therapies include haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, haemofiltration, and renal transplation. Haemodialysis (HD) This can be carried out on an outpatient or an inpatient basis. In the context of this explanation it is...

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Rhabdomyolysis

Introduction Rhabdomyolysis is the result of breakdown of muscle tissue, with the subsequent release of muscle products into the bloodstream. Aetiology Causes Trauma – most common Prolonged immobilisation Drug reactions – e.g. statins, fibrates,...

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