Charcot’s Joint

Introduction Charcot’s Joint (aka Charcot’s osteoarthropathy¬†or¬†Charcot’s neuroarthropathy) is most commonly seen as a complication of diabetes, but is also sometimes seen with syphilis. It is the result of peripheral neuropathy. It results in swelling,...

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Diabetic Foot Check

In diabetes it is important to check distal circulation. Diabetes affects blood vessels, causing a loss of blood supply that can lead to ischemia and tissues damage. This is particularly the case in the...

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Diabetic Retinopathy

This is the most common cause of blind registration for patients in the UK between 15 and 65 years.   Pathology When were they diagnosed with DM- the longer the duration the higher the...

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Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State (HHS)

Introduction Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) was formerly known as HyperOsmolar Non-Ketotic coma (HONK). HHS is a condition that occurs in patients who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus and have very high blood sugars...

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Introduction to Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus (to be differentiated from diabetes insipidus, although mellitus is much more prevalent and thus referred to as commonly “diabetes”)¬†is a chronic state of hyperglycaemia caused by a lack of or diminished effectiveness...

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Monitoring and Complications of Diabetes

We treat diabetes to reduce the risk of the complications of diabetes. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death of people with diabetes. So it is important to monitor that treatment is effective,...

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Physiology of Metabolism

Introduction Only 1% of pancreatic tissue is endocrine. This tissue is found in the Islets of langerhans. Surrounding the islets are adipose tissue deposits. The older you get, the more adipose tissue you have....

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Type 1 Diabetes and Management of DKA

Introduction Type I diabetes is a disorder that results from the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, which produce insulin It accounts for about 10% of cases of diabetes mellitus, the other...

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