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This site contains a collection of notes written by medical students and junior doctors. Each article is an amalgamation of knowledge from journal articles, textbooks, lectures, ward rounds, tutorials, other online resources and impromptu teaching and advice provided by medical professionals.

Unfortunately, currently we are unable to provide individual sources for some of our articles. This is a consequence of the way many of our original articles were written – as personal revision notes which were subsequently then shared on almostadoctor. We are working (slowly) to add more references as a priority as articles are improved and updated.
Below is a list of many of the written sources that have been used to compile our articles.


  • Murtagh‚Äôs General Practice. 6th Ed. (2015) John Murtagh, Jill Rosenblatt
  • Kumar, P., Clark, M., (2005). Clinical Medicine. 6th ed. Elsevier Saunders
  • Boon, NA., Colledge, NR., Walker, BR. (2006). Davidson‚Äôs Principles and Practice of Medicine. 20th ed. Churchill Livingstone
  • Beers, MH., Porter RS., Jones, TV., Kaplan JL., Berkwits, M. (2006)¬†The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy
  • Warrell, DA., Eatherall, DJ., Cox, TM. (2003). Oxford Textbook of Medicine. 4th ed. Oxford University Press
  • Longmore, M., Wilkinson I., Turmezei, T., Cheung, CK. (2007). Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine. ¬†7th ed. Oxford Uiversity Press
  • Drake, R., Vogl, AW., Mitchell, AWM. (2004). Gray‚Äôs anatomy for students. Churchill Livingstone
  • Guyton, AC., Hall, JE. (2005). Textbook of Medical Physiology. Saunders
  • Martini, FH. (2006). Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology. 7th ed. Pearson
  • Waller, DG., Renwick AG., Hillier K. (2005). Medical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2nd ed. Elsevier Saunders
  • Rang, HP., Dale, MM., Ritter, JM., Flower, R. (2007). Rang & Dale‚Äôs pharmacology. 6th ed. Churchill Livingstone
  • Cox, NLT., Roper TA. (2005). Oxford Core Texts: Clinical Skills. Oxford University Press.
  • Underwood, CE. (2004). General and Systematic Pathology. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone
  • Grace, PA., Borley, NR. (2006). Surgery at a glance. 3rd ed. Wiley Blackwell
  • Tjandra, J., Clunie, GJA., Kaye, A. (2005). Textbook of surgery. 3rd ed. Blackwell
  • Hamptom, JR. (2008). The ECG made easy. 7th ed. Churchill Livingstone
  • Feather, A., Knowles CH., Domizio, P. (2008). EMQ‚Äôs for medical students: v. 1. 2nd ed. PasTest
  • Feather, A., Knowles CH., Round, J., Domizio, P. (2008). EMQ‚Äôs for medical students: v. 2. 2nd ed. PasTest
Additional resources:
  • NICE guidelines ‚Äď these are UK NHS recommendations for the management of many conditions. The guidelines can be found online at:
  • Websites

      • Information for patients and doctors, written by doctors
      • Emergency Medicine FOAM website, based in Australia, but highly relevant to UK practice too
      • Authoritative source with a huge encyclopedia about almost everything medical. Requires a subscription – but your hospital probably has one. If you create a personal account whilst logged in at your hospital, it will give you access outside of the hospital (you need to log in every 90 days to keep it active)
      • Website of the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Lots of useful articles on managing conditions in primary care.
Also, many thanks to the staff and patients at the University of Manchester and associated Teaching Hospitals, GP practices, and other Community Placements, and to all our patients. Additional thanks to the people, patients and staff of the Royal Bolton Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, and the people, patients and staff of Canberra, the Canberra Hospital, Calvary Hospital, and the surrounding areas.
The notes on this site are all written by current medical students and doctors. Notes are reviewed by our editor (Dr Tom Leach with prior assistance from Dr Patrick Green) before being uploaded.
However, the information contained in the site has not been specifically and authoritatively peer-reviewed, and as such has not passed scientific scrutiny as to its accuracy (although many of the sources we use have been peer reviewed and are generally accepted in medical science).
The information contained in this site is accurate to the best of our knowledge, however, you should always check information with a relevant professional. This site is intended as an additional learning resource for medical students, junior doctors and other medical professionals and should be used in conjunction with other resources recommended by your higher education facility, for example; peer-reviewed articles, textbooks, and advice from clinicians. accepts no responsibility or legal liability for the use or misuse of the information contained in this site. is not intended as a replacement for your clinician, or a diagnostic tools for patients, and should not be used as such.