Adrenal Physiology

Introduction This article looks at adrenal physiology and explains the production and effects of adrenal products. For more information on mechanisms of blood pressure regulation, secretion of ions, and other effects related to the...

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Euthyroid Sick Syndrome

This condition is not very well understood! This is a condition where TSH and T3/T4 levels are low, but there is no underlying pathology of the thyroid. These test results are the same as...

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Hyperprolactinaemia

Introduction Prolactin is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland, most commonly associated with lactation (milk production) in the female. It is also produced in adipose (fat) tissue and hair follicles. Hypoerprolactinaemia exists...

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Parathyroid Glands

Introduction  The parathyroid glands control the level of calcium and phosphates in the blood. Phosphate levels can vary up to 2-3x the normal level without causing major problems Calcium levels have to be much...

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