Adrenal Physiology
Location of the adrenal gland - on top of the kidneys. Image modified from original images taken from SMART by Servier Medical Art by Servier and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

Adrenal Physiology

  • Reading time:17 mins read

Introduction This article looks at adrenal physiology and explains the production and effects of adrenal products. For more information on mechanisms of blood pressure regulation, secretion of ions, and other…

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Euthyroid Sick Syndrome
Normal Thyroid Gland

Euthyroid Sick Syndrome

  • Reading time:1 mins read

Euthyroid sick syndrome is not very well understood. It is a condition where TSH and T3/T4 levels are low, but there is no underlying pathology of the thyroid. These test…

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Hyperprolactinaemia

  • Reading time:5 mins read

Introduction Prolactin is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland, most commonly associated with lactation (milk production) in the female. It is also produced in adipose (fat) tissue and…

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Parathyroid Glands

  • Reading time:7 mins read

Introduction  The parathyroid glands control the level of calcium and phosphates in the blood. Phosphate levels can vary up to 2-3x the normal level without causing major problems Calcium levels…

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