The Thirst Axis

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ADH (/vasopressin) is synthesised in the hypothalamus. From there it migrates in neurosecretory granules along axonal pathways to the posterior pituitary gland. Secretion of ADH is principally in response to…

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Thyroid Carcinoma

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Introduction Thyroid nodules are relatively common, and seen in about 5% of the population Only about 5% of thyroid nodules are thyroid cancers Most thyroid cancers are¬†papillary tumours¬†(about 80%)¬†which are…

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Thyroid Eye Disease

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Introduction Typically associated with the signs of Grave‚Äôs disease (goitre, acropathy, hyperthyroidism and pretibial myxoedema). Autoimmune orbital disease may occur without thyroid autoantibodies Clinical features Swelling of the eyelids Oedema…

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Type 2 Diabetes – T2DM

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Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a largely preventable, common metabolic disorder, of increasing incidence and increasing significance, particularly in developed countries. In 2014, about 3% of the population…

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