Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis)

Introduction Thyrotoxicosis is the state produced by excessive thyroid hormone. It is not strictly the same thing as hyperthyroidism, as thyrotoxicosis can exist without hyperthyroidism being present – for example – after the administration...

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Hypopituitarism

Introduction Hypopituitarism entails reduced secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Which hormones go first? Anterior pituitary hormones are affected in the following order: GH >> muscle and bone FSH >> ovary LH >> testes Polactin >> breast TSH >> thyroid ACTH >> kidney and adrenal gland N.B....

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Hypothyroidism

Introduction Hypothyroidism (aka myxoedema) Hypothyroidism is a common disorder which presents most commonly in women and the elderly. It is typically relatively straight-forward to treat. As the symptoms can be non-specific, be on the...

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Introduction to Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus (to be differentiated from diabetes insipidus, although mellitus is much more prevalent and thus referred to as commonly “diabetes”) is a chronic state of hyperglycaemia caused by a lack of or diminished effectiveness...

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Monitoring and Complications of Diabetes

We treat diabetes to reduce the risk of the complications of diabetes. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death of people with diabetes. So it is important to monitor that treatment is effective,...

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Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN)

Introduction MEN = the occurrence of several distinct syndromes featuring functional tumours of multiple endocrine glands. In some cases, tumours are malignant; in others, they are benign. MEN Tumours arising in >1 endocrine gland....

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Phaeochromocytoma

Introduction Phaeochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumour of the medulla of the adrenal glands. It secretes large quantities of  the catecholamines noradrenaline, and to a lesser extent, adrenaline.   Epidemiology Rule of 10: 10% familial,...

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Physiology of Metabolism

Introduction Only 1% of pancreatic tissue is endocrine. This tissue is found in the Islets of langerhans. Surrounding the islets are adipose tissue deposits. The older you get, the more adipose tissue you have....

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Plasma Osmolality and Salt Balance

Water moves freely between compartments and the distribution is determined by the osmotic equilibrium between them. The dilution of plasma is described as plasma osmolality. The more diluted the plasma is, the lower the...

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