CURB-65 Score

Community-acquired pneumonia Severity can be assessed by using the CURB-65 score (1 point for each): Confusion Urea >7mmol/L Respiratory rate ≥ 30/min BP < 90 systolic and/or 60mmHg diastolic Age ≥ 65 Score: 0-1...

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HAS-BLED score for anticoagulation

The HAS-BLED tool is often used to assess a patient’s bleeding risk before starting the use of anticoagulation – particularly in relation to atrial fibrillation. It is often used in conjunction with the CHA2DS2-VASc...

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Hepatic Encephelopathy

West Haven criteria for grading hepatic encephalopathy Grade 1: Trivial lack of awareness. Impaired attention span. Altered sleep, euphoria or depression. Mild asterixis may be present. Grade 2: Lethargy or apathy. Disorientation. Inappropriate behavior....

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MRC Dyspnoea Scale in COPD

Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale in COPD 1: Not troubles by breathlessness except on strenuous exercise. 2: Short of breath when hurrying or walking up a slight hill. 3: Walks slower than contemporaries on...

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NYHA Heart Failure Classification

New York (NYHA) classification of heart failure Class I (Mild): Heart disease present, but no undue dyspnoea from ordinary     activity. Class II (Mild): Comfortable at rest; dyspnoea on ordinary activities. Class III (Moderate): Less...

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PERC score

The PERC score can be used as a screening tool in patients with a low clinical likelihood of pulmonary embolism – to assess if there is a need for further work-up, or to exclude a...

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TNM Staging System

The TNM staging system is used in the evaluation of many cancers. Each individual cancer has its own slight variation on the system, however, it is universally applicable in its basic format. T: size...

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