Dementia

Dementia is a progressive global decline cognitive function, without impairment of consciousness. It is typically defined as a syndrome secondary to one or more of multiple causes, rather than a diagnosis in its own right....

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Faecal Incontinence

Introduction Occurs in 15% aged >65Y, increasing incidence with age in men only. Causes include: Sphincter weakness (following childbirth/surgery); Anal/rectal pathology e.g. fistulae, Crohn’s, proctitis; Neurological disease (chorda equine, pudendal nerve); Dementia and unconsciousness; Diarrhoea...

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Falls

Introduction Falls are an incredibly common presentation. You will see them as GP referrals, A+E presentations, and countless times on the ward. Exactly how you examine and manage the patient will depend on the...

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Incontinence

Types of incontinence This is the involuntary loss of urine, that is serious enough to cause a social or hygiene problem. It becomes more prevalent with age, with about 15% of women and 10%...

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Osteoporosis

Introduction Osteoporosis means literally porous bone Refers to decreased bone density, which leads to an increase in fracture risk Risk factors Bone density declines with age Highest risk is in post-menopausal women Use of...

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Paget Disease of the Bone

Introduction Along with osteoporosis, Paget disease of the bone (PDB) – aka osteitis deformans –  is a common degenerative bone disease. It affects up to 5% of the population in Anglo-Saxon societies. PBD is a disorder of...

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