Delirium (Acute Confusional State)
Confusion

Delirium (Acute Confusional State)

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Introduction Delirium is defined as an acute and fluctuating disturbance in level of consciousness, attention and global cognition. Prompt treatment is required to avoid potential brain damage. The underlying mechanism…

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Dementia
Confusion

Dementia

  • Reading time:18 mins read

Introduction Dementia is a progressive global decline cognitive function, without impairment of consciousness. It is typically defined as a syndrome secondary to one or more of multiple causes, rather than a…

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Faecal Incontinence
diarrhoea poop emoji

Faecal Incontinence

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Introduction Occurs in 15% aged >65Y, increasing incidence with age in men only. Causes include: Sphincter weakness (following childbirth/surgery); Anal/rectal pathology e.g. fistulae, Crohn’s, proctitis; Neurological disease (chorda equine, pudendal nerve);…

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Falls
Falling man

Falls

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Introduction Falls are an incredibly common presentation. You will see them as GP referrals, A+E presentations, and countless times on the ward. Exactly how you examine and manage the patient…

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Incontinence

  • Reading time:9 mins read

Types of incontinence This is the involuntary loss of urine, that is serious enough to cause a social or hygiene problem. It becomes more prevalent with age, with about 15%…

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Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis bone structure. Image by Servier Medical Art by Servier and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

Osteoporosis

  • Reading time:8 mins read

Introduction Osteoporosis means literally porous bone Refers to decreased bone density, which leads to an increase in fracture risk Risk factors Bone density declines with age Highest risk is in…

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Postural Hypotension (Orthostatic Hypotension)

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Postural Hypotension is a symptom, not a condition. This is colloquially known as a ‘head rush’ or ‘dizzy spell’, and is unsteadiness or LOC on standing from lying in those…

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