Knee Examination

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Introduction Knee examination is an important clinical skill, and knee problems are a common presenting complaint to general practice and emergency departments. Knee examination is also a common OSCE station.…

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Read more about the article Osgood-Schlatter Disease
Osgood Schlatter Disease x-ray showing fragmention of the tibial tuberosity in a more severe case

Osgood-Schlatter Disease

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Introduction Osgood Schlatter Disease (OSD) is a painful condition in which there is injury to the tibial tuberosity where it joins with the patellar tendon. It is commonly found in…

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Osteoarthritis – OA

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Introduction Osteoarthritis is a condition that results from the loss of cartilage at synovial joints, and is often accompanied by degeneration of the underlying bone. Radiologically there can be visible:…

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Introduction Osteochondromas are benign tumours of bone and cartilage. They frequently grow outwards from bone near the growth plate (metaphysis) and can be palpated. They most commonly occur on the…

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Introduction Osteomyelitis refers to infection of the bone and/or bone marrow. It can occur in both adults and children but is more common in the latter. It is commonly caused…

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Read more about the article Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis bone structure. Image by Servier Medical Art by Servier and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License


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Introduction Osteoporosis means literally porous bone Refers to decreased bone density, which leads to an increase in fracture risk Risk factors Bone density declines with age Highest risk is in…

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Introduction Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant primary bone tumour, although they are still very rare. It frequently occurs in late childhood and tends to arise in the metaphyses of…

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Paget Disease of the Bone

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Introduction Along with osteoporosis, Paget disease of the bone (PDB) - aka osteitis deformans -  is a common degenerative bone disease. It affects up to 5% of the population in Anglo-Saxon societies. PBD…

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