Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract
Anatomy of urinary tract. Image modified from original images taken from SMART by Servier Medical Art by Servier and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract

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Summary The kidneys develop from metanephros. The bladder and urethra develop from the urogenital sinus The prostate develops from an outgrowth of the urethral epithelium Ureters These enter the pelvis…

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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia – BPH
Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia – BPH

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Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia occurs most commonly in men over 60. The term benign prostatic hypertrophy is often used interchangeably with benign prostatic hyperplasia, but is less correct. Hyperplasia refers to an increase in…

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Urinary Catheter with inflated balloon


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Indications Urinary retention Monitor fluid output (e.g. post-op, renal failure, trauma, sepsis, general illness) – in pretty much all seriously ill patients! – also pre-op to measure urine output during…

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Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction

Erectile Dysfunction

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Introduction Erectile dysfunction is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It affects up to 50% of men between 40 and 70. Erection requires…

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Example of haematuria. When less 'red' in appearance, haematuria is sometimes described as "Rosé". Also note that there are no clots in this example. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


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Introduction Haematuria is the passing of blood in the urine Frank Haematuria - the presence of blood on macroscopic investigation (i.e. looking at the blood) Microscopic Haematuria – RBC’s visible only on…

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Types of incontinence This is the involuntary loss of urine, that is serious enough to cause a social or hygiene problem. It becomes more prevalent with age, with about 15%…

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Kidney Stone (Renal Calculus)

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Introduction Renal calculi (kidney stones) are precipitates that form from urine due to a high concentration of that particular precipitate in the urine. The most common (85%) precipitate is calcium;…

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Prostate Cancer

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Introduction Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and the 4th most common cause of death for men in England and Wales. The lifetime risk for prostate cancer in…

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Introduction Prostatitis refers to inflammation of the prostate, most commonly a result of infection (either UTI or STI). Prostatitis affects up to 15% of men at some point in the…

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PSA – Prostate Specific Antigen

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Normal level ~4 It is raised in 80% of patients at age 80. So, in many patients it is raised in normal circumstances Levels increase with age In prostate cancer,…

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