Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract

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Summary The kidneys develop from metanephros. The bladder and urethra develop from the urogenital sinus The prostate develops from an outgrowth of the urethral epithelium Ureters These enter the pelvis…

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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia – BPH

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Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia occurs most commonly in men over 60. The term benign prostatic hypertrophy is often used interchangeably with benign prostatic hyperplasia, but is less correct. Hyperplasia refers to an increase in…

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Catheterisation

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IndicationsUrinary retentionMonitor fluid output (e.g. post-op, renal failure, trauma, sepsis, general illness) – in pretty much all seriously ill patients! – also pre-op to measure urine output during op.Investigation –…

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Erectile Dysfunction

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Introduction Erectile dysfunction is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It affects up to 50% of men between 40 and 70. Erection requires…

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Haematuria

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Introduction Haematuria is the passing of blood in the urine Frank Haematuriais the presence of blood on macroscopic investigation (i.e. looking at the blood) Microscopic Haematuria – is where you…

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Incontinence

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Types of incontinence This is the involuntary loss of urine, that is serious enough to cause a social or hygiene problem. It becomes more prevalent with age, with about 15%…

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Kidney Stone (Renal Calculus)

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Introduction Renal calculi (kidney stones) are precipitates that form from urine due to a high concentration of that particular precipitate in the urine. The most common (85%) precipitate is calcium;…

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Prostate Cancer

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Introduction By the age of 80, >80% of men have prostate cancer It is the second most common cancer in men, and the 4th most common cause of death for men…

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Prostatitis

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Introduction Prostatitis refers to inflammation of the prostate, most commonly a result of infection (either UTI or STI). Prostatitis affects up to 15% of men at some point in the…

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PSA – Prostate Specific Antigen

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Normal level ~4 It is raised in 80% of patients at age 80. So, in many patients it is raised in normal circumstances Levels increase with age In prostate cancer,…

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