PUO – Pyrexia of Unknown Origin

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Introduction This is also sometimes called fever of unknown origin (FUO) It is strictly defined as: Temperature greater than 38.3’ Duration of longer than 3 weeks During which time there…

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RCC – Renal Cell Carcinoma

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Introduction This is an adenocarcinoma These arise from the proximal tubular epithelium. The tumours are highly vascular, and microscopically, they will appear as large cells with clear cytoplasm. Haemorrhage within…

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TCC – Transitional Cell Carcinoma (bladder cancer)

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Introduction This is a tumour of the bladder and urinary tract. It can occur anywhere along the urinary tract from the calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder to the urethra. Epidemiology…

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Testicular Cancer

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Introduction These are germ cell tumours. There are two main types (these account for 80% of all tumours) Seminoma (dysgerminoma in women). These arise from the seminiferous tubules. They are…

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Testicular Exam

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Testicles are normally examined if there is: Pain Swelling Abdominal pain (torsion of testes) Examination Usual stuff – wash hands, check right patient, introduce yourself, explain, get a chpaerone Normally,…

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Testicular Torsion

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Definition This is when the spermatic cord (contains the vas deferens, lymphatic vessels, testicular artery, cremasteric artery, panpiniform plexus (veins), nerve to cremaster, testicular nerves) to a testicle twists therefore…

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Transplant Reactions

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Hyperacute Rejection Occurs within minutes (to hours) – so quick that the surgeon is sometimes able to visualise characteristic changes whilst sill performing the anastomosis of blood vessels. There is…

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Undescended Testes

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Introduction Undescended testes (aka cryptorchidism, and sometimes maldescended testes) can be congenital or acquired Usually unilateral Congenital undescended testes affects approximately 3-6% of males at birth <1% remain undescended by the age of…

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Urinary Retention

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Introduction This is the inability to micturated, and it can either be chronic or acute   Acute This is a sudden inability to micturate in the presence of a painful…

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Urinary Tract Infection – UTI

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Introduction These are very common in women, but far less common in men and children. Recurrent infection can lead to considerable morbidity and may even lead to renal disease, and…

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