Testicular Cancer

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Introduction These are germ cell tumours. There are two main types (these account for 80% of all tumours) Seminoma (dysgerminoma in women). These arise from the seminiferous tubules. They are…

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Testicular Exam

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Testicles are normally examined if there is: Pain Swelling Abdominal pain (torsion of testes) Examination Usual stuff – wash hands, check right patient, introduce yourself, explain, get a chpaerone Normally,…

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Testicular Torsion

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Definition This is when the spermatic cord (contains the vas deferens, lymphatic vessels, testicular artery, cremasteric artery, panpiniform plexus (veins), nerve to cremaster, testicular nerves) to a testicle twists therefore…

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Transplant Reactions

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Hyperacute Rejection Occurs within minutes (to hours) – so quick that the surgeon is sometimes able to visualise characteristic changes whilst sill performing the anastomosis of blood vessels. There is…

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Undescended Testes

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Introduction Undescended testes (aka cryptorchidism, and sometimes maldescended testes) can be congenital or acquired Usually unilateral Congenital undescended testes affects approximately 3-6% of males at birth <1% remain undescended by the age of…

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Urinary Retention

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Introduction This is the inability to micturated, and it can either be chronic or acute   Acute This is a sudden inability to micturate in the presence of a painful…

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