Calcium

See also: Calcium, Vitamin D and Bone Density Parathyroid Glands Roles of Calcium Contraction of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle Blood clotting Control of nerve impulses Increases in the level of calcium cause depression...

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Paediatric Vital Signs

Unlike adult vital signs, the exact reference ranges for paediatrics are not universally agreed upon and there is some variation between sources. The table below is an approximation based on several sources, most closely...

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Potassium

The Basics 98% is intracellular Serum range 3.5 – 5 mmol/L K+ and H+ tend to vary together Most body secretion is in urine – from distal tubules Shifts K+ INSIDE cells Insulin Aldosterone...

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Sodium

Hyponatraemia Sodium levels are very closely linked to fluid levels, as sodium is an extracellular electrolyte. As opposed to potassium which is intracellular. Signs & Symptoms Neurological: Confusion Lethargy Seizures Coma Classification Hypovolaemic hyponatraemia...

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Swiss Cheese Model

Introduction The Swiss Cheese Model of accident causation is a way of thinking about how negative outcomes occur. The model was developed in the business and aviation industries to help reduce negatives outcomes and...

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The Anion Gap

Introduction The anion gap is a tool used to: Confirm that an acidosis is metabolic Narrow down the cause of a metabolic acidosis Monitor the progress of treatment In a metabolic acidosis the anion...

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