Read more about the article Abdominal X-Ray
Toxic Megacolon on abdominal x-ray

Abdominal X-Ray

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Introduction An abdominal x-ray (AXR) is a commonly performed x-ray for some gastrointestinal presentations. Generally, its use is limited - many abdominal conditions are better diagnosed clinically, or with an…

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Read more about the article Calcium
Dietary sources of calcium include milk and other dairy products, notes and seeds, fish, dates broccoli and other leafy green vegetables.


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See also: Calcium, Vitamin D and Bone Density Parathyroid Glands Roles of Calcium Contraction of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle Blood clotting Control of nerve impulses Increases in the level…

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Read more about the article Chest X-Ray
A normal CXR in a healthy young male. In particular note the normal markings, clear costophrenic angles, and clear lung fields. There is quite a large gastric bubble, but this is not considered pathologic.

Chest X-Ray

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Introduction The chest x-ray (also known as CXR or Chest Radiograph) is probably the most commonly performed medical imaging procedure. An x-ray can typically discern 4 different densities: Air (black) Metal - i.e.…

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Read more about the article Paediatric Vital Signs
Vital Signs Monitor

Paediatric Vital Signs

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Paediatric vital signs (normal reference ranges for observations) are a crucial part of assessing any unwell child.  Importantly, paediatric vital signs vary by the child's age. Generally, the normal heart…

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The Basics 98% is intracellular Serum range 3.5 – 5 mmol/L K+ and H+ tend to vary together Most body secretion is in urine – from distal tubules Shifts K+…

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Read more about the article Spirometry
Flow-Volume Loop spirometry


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Introduction Spirometry is the most widely used pulmonary function test (aka lung function test). It measures the volume and flow of air during inspiration and expiration; it is an assessment of how effectively…

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Read more about the article Swiss Cheese Model
Swiss Cheese Model

Swiss Cheese Model

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Introduction The Swiss Cheese Model of accident causation is a way of thinking about how negative outcomes occur. The model was developed in the business and aviation industries to help…

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