Read more about the article Abdominal Examination
The 9 regions and 4 quadrants of the abdomen. Download for free at

Abdominal Examination

  • Reading time:25 mins read

Summary of Abdominal Examination Introduce yourself, check right patient (name DOB, wrist-band) explain that you are going to perform an abdominal examination and what this will involve, and ask the…

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Read more about the article Assessing Gait
Can you assess the gait of John Cleese?

Assessing Gait

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Gait is a highly co-ordinated action. It requires the integration of sensory and motor information and the functioning of many separate areas. It needs correct sensory function, muscle strength, propriception,…

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Read more about the article Breast Examination
Normal breast anatomy. Image from CDC.

Breast Examination

  • Reading time:14 mins read

Background Info Presentations of Breast Disease Lump Pain - Rare in breast cancer Asymmetry - Change in breast size – particularly related to the menstrual cycle Change in breast feature…

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Read more about the article Cardiovascular Examination
Cardiovascular Examination. Image by medipics1066 is licensed with CC BY 2.0.

Cardiovascular Examination

  • Reading time:48 mins read

Introduction Male students will require a chaperone to examine female patients. You should ask your patient to strip to the waist. Female patients can cover up (with a sheet or…

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Read more about the article Cranial Nerve Testing
Unlabelled diagram of cranial nerves. Image by by jlcampbell104 is marked under CC0 1.0

Cranial Nerve Testing

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Overview Olfactory I Quick method – ask the patient if: They notice smells in the morning (e.g. coffee, toast) They notice smells that others do They think their sense of…

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Diabetic Foot Check

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Introduction An important part of routine diabetes care is to check the feet for signs of diabetic foot disease - mainly peripheral neuropathy (and associated skin integrity), but also the increased risk…

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Read more about the article DVT Exam
Patient with phelgmasia DVT of the left leg. Phlegmasia is a severe form of DVT with complete occlusion of the venous circulation, resulting in an acute onset presentation, and unlike a more traditional DVT it is associated with significant pain.

DVT Exam

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Introduction A swollen, tender, warm, red calf can be indicative of several conditions, one of which is Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). Other differentials could include include cellulitis, muscle injury, achilles…

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Read more about the article Elbow Examination
AN example of olecranon bursitis of the elbow, causing soft tissue deformity over the olecranon

Elbow Examination

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Look Look from the front for the carrying angle and from the side for flexion deformity Look at elbow for scars, rashes, muscle wasting, rheumatoid nodules, swellings and psoriatic plaques…

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