Read more about the article Foot Examination

Foot Examination

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Look With patient weight bearing; Observe the feet, comparing one with other, for symmetry. Look for nail changes or skin rashes such as psoriasis From behind, look at the hindfoot…

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Read more about the article GALS Examination

GALS Examination

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Introduction This stands for: Gait Arms Legs Spine The exam is a quick way of screening for musculoskeletal dysfunction. Most of the exam can be done without actually having to…

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Read more about the article Hands Examination

Hands Examination

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Setting up and getting started Look for any walking aids Look around the bed for medications (e.g. artificial tears) Look for any physical aids, e.g. hand grabbers Look for any…

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Read more about the article Hernias
Common hernia sites. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


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Introduction and Definitions A hernia is – a protrusion of a viscous out of a containing cavity -  i.e. when a structure passes through an anatomical barrier and ends up…

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Read more about the article Hip Examination
Gait Analysis. Image by University of Salford is marked with CC BY 2.0.

Hip Examination

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The hip is another ball and socket joint, but has reduced levels of movement compared to the shoulder. The joint’s main role is weight bearing. Inspection Ask the patient if…

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Hydration Status

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Introduction There may be clues in the history. E.g.: Patient feels thirsty Admitted for poor fluid intake Sepsis Bleeding Vomiting Bowel obstruction Inspection Look around the bed for clues. E.g.…

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