Cerebral Aneurysm

This is localised dilation of an artery within the brain. They rarely occur in veins. They are a major risk factor for subarachnoid haemorrhage.   Epidemiology & Aetiology Occur in 5% of the population...

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Comparison of Intracranial Haemorrhage

Comparison of Intracranial Haemorrhage Feature Subarachnoid Subdural Extradural Location The inner most layer around the brain tissue Between the dura mater and arachnoid mater The outermost layer, between the skull and dura mater Mechanism...

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Extradural Haemorrhage

Extradural Haemorrhage aka Epidural Haematoma Blood collects between the dura mater and the bone of the skull. The dura is stripped away from the skull – indicating a high pressure bleed. On CT and...

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Spinal Cord Compression

Physiology and anatomy The spinal cord runs from C1 (junction with the medulla), to about L1, where it becomes the cauda equina. Note that it terminates lower down in children – the spinal cord...

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Spinal stenosis

Introduction Spinal stenosis is a disorder caused by the narrowing of the spinal canal, or the neural foramina (the space through which the spinal nerve roots pass), which results in ischaemia of the nerve...

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Spondyolisthesis

Introduction Spondylolisthesis refers to an anterior or posterior movement of a vertebrae in relation to its adjacent vertebrae. Spondylolisthesis affects about between 5-12% of the population but most cases are asymptomatic. It is thought...

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Subarachnoid Haemorrhage – SAH

Introduction This is bleeding into the subarachnoid space. The classical sign is a sudden onset intense headache (“feel like I’ve been hit on the back of the head Doc”). The bleeding occurs as the...

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