Acute Kidney Injury – AKI

Summary Acute Kidney Injury – AKI¬†(formerly more commonly Acute Renal Failure) is a sudden decline in renal function significant enough to produce¬†uraemia, and also often¬†oliguria¬†‚Äď a urine output of <400ml/day.¬†It normally occurs over a...

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Acute Limb Ischaemia

Acute limb ischaemia occurs when there is blockage of a peripheral artery, either from a thromboembolism, or sometimes from an embolic plaque. It frequently occurs on a background of peripheral vascular disease. Thrombus in...

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Aggressive Behaviour

People prone to aggressive behaviour are at greater risk of mental illness Aggressive and abusive behaviour is also a feature of mental illness 40% of medical staff report being physically assaulted at some point...

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Airway Management

Airway management is an important skill in Emergency Medicine, Critical care (including Intensive care and High Dependency (HDU)) as well as in anaesthetics. Without a sufficient airway, a patient will suffer permanent brain damage...

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ALS – Advanced Life Support

Advanced Life Support is an international protocol used in life-threatening situations around cardiac arrest and peri-arrest. It is a continuation and extension of Basic Life Support (BLS) Below is an outline of some of...

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Anaphylaxis

Introduction Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction. Allergic reactions can vary greatly in their severity. This may depend on the quantity and route of allergen exposure, and on the individual. The most severe reactions...

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Appendicitis

Appendicitis is the most common indication for abdominal surgery in children. Appendicitis is acute inflammation of the appendix   Epidemiology About 5% of the population will have appendicitis at some point Most commonly occurs...

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Atrial Fibrillation – AF

Atrial fibrillation is a common tachycardia. It is significant, as having the condition increases the risk of stroke. Managing acute atrial fibrillation is a very common problem in the emergency department with many different...

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