Read more about the article Acute Kidney Injury – AKI
Acute Kidney Injury. Image © 2013 Aya Mulder. Licensed under CC-BY.

Acute Kidney Injury – AKI

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Introduction Acute Kidney Injury - AKI (formerly more commonly Acute Renal Failure) is a sudden decline in renal function significant enough to produce uraemia, and also often oliguria – a urine output of <400ml/day. It…

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Read more about the article Acute Limb Ischaemia
Acute Limb Ischaemia - note in this example the dusky colour of the toes indicating significant cyanosis. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Acute Limb Ischaemia

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Introduction Acute limb ischaemia occurs when there is blockage of a peripheral artery, either from a thromboembolism, or sometimes from an embolic plaque. It frequently occurs on a background of…

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Read more about the article Aggressive Behaviour
An angry, aggressive patient. This patient may be easier to deal with than some

Aggressive Behaviour

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People prone to aggressive behaviour are at greater risk of mental illness Aggressive and abusive behaviour is also a feature of mental illness 40% of medical staff report being physically…

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Read more about the article Airway Management
Left - position of the tongue n anatomical position when lying flat in an unconscious patient. Right - shows position of the tongue during head tilt / chin lift manouvre

Airway Management

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Airway management is an important skill in Emergency Medicine, Critical care (including Intensive care and High Dependency (HDU)) as well as in anaesthetics. Without a sufficient airway, a patient will…

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Read more about the article Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol abuse and addiction

Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse

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Introduction Alcohol is the most dangerous addictive drug in the world. It kills around 15 Australians every day. Alcohol abuse is widespread in Western Society, and is a common presenting…

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Read more about the article Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis in a child. Image by milkboymedia is licensed with CC BY-NC-ND 2.0


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Introduction Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction. Allergic reactions can vary greatly in their severity. This may depend on the quantity and route of allergen exposure, and on the individual.…

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Read more about the article Appendicitis
A CT scan with red arrow indicating an inflamed appendix - diagnostic for appendicitis. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


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Appendicitis is the most common indication for abdominal surgery in children. Appendicitis is acute inflammation of the appendix   Epidemiology About 5% of the population will have appendicitis at some…

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Read more about the article Atrial Fibrillation – AF
Atrial fibrillation on ECG. Note the absence of p waves, and the flat baseline

Atrial Fibrillation – AF

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Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common tachycardia. It can be caused by many other underlying illness, especially in the acutely unwell patient (such as sepsis, pneumonia, hyperthyroidism or other illness).…

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