Read more about the article Haematuria
Example of haematuria. When less 'red' in appearance, haematuria is sometimes described as "Rosé". Also note that there are no clots in this example. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


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Introduction Haematuria is the passing of blood in the urine Frank Haematuria - the presence of blood on macroscopic investigation (i.e. looking at the blood) Microscopic Haematuria – RBC’s visible only on…

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Loop Diuretics

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Introduction Loop diuretics are the strongest type of diuretic - they cause an increase in the excretion of sodium and water from the kidney. They are very effective, and prevent the…

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Postural Hypotension

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Postural hypotension is a transient fall in blood pressure which causes symptoms when a patient moves from sitting or lying to standing. Physiology Moment to moment, blood pressure is controlled…

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The Basics 98% is intracellular Serum range 3.5 – 5 mmol/L K+ and H+ tend to vary together Most body secretion is in urine – from distal tubules Shifts K+…

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Proximal Tubule Diuretics

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Proximal tubule diuretics e.g. acetazolidamide These drugs are carbonic anyhrdrase blockers. Some sodium is reabsorbed in conjunction with hydrogen. This process relies on the carbonic anhydrase to catalyse the reaction…

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Renal Physiology

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Introduction Renal physiology is complicated. Don't worry too much if you don't feel like you have a full grasp of it - most of us don't! It seems to be…

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