Renal Replacement Therapy

  • Reading time:20 mins read

Introduction The different types of renal replacement therapies include¬†haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis,¬†haemofiltration, and renal¬†transplation. Haemodialysis¬†(HD) This can be carried out on an outpatient or an inpatient basis. In the context of…

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  • Reading time:5 mins read

Introduction Rhabdomyolysis is the result of breakdown of muscle tissue, with the subsequent release of muscle products into the bloodstream. Aetiology Causes Trauma ‚Äď most common Prolonged immobilisation Drug reactions…

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Sodium and Hyponatraemia

  • Reading time:7 mins read

Introduction Sodium levels are very closely linked to fluid levels, as sodium is an extracellular electrolyte. As opposed to potassium which is intracellular. Hyponatraemia is commonly seen both in the…

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Thiazide Diuretics

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Introduction Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are commonly used for management of hypertension, as well as management of oedema (e.g. in heart failure or liver failure). They are¬†moderately potent¬†diuretics¬†as opposed to…

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Urea & Electrolytes

  • Reading time:3 mins read

Example One ‚ÜĎNa+ ‚ÜĒK+ ‚ÜĎ‚ÜĎUrea ‚ÜĎ‚ÜĎCreatinine Diagnosis Renal failure Main causes of chronic renal failure: Hypertension Diabetes Pyelonephritis / glomerulonephritis Explanation Massively raised urea and creatinine together can only be…

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