Breast Cancer

Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of death from cancer, after lung cancer. There are more published studies (on PubMed) on breast cancer, than...

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Breast Examination

Background Info Presentations of Breast Disease Lump Pain – Rare in breast cancer Asymmetry – Change in breast size – particularly related to the menstrual cycle Change in breast feature Change in Nipple May...

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Other Breast Lumps

Fibroadenoma the most common benign breast lump can occur from any age after puberty most common in the third decade Usually unifocal, but can be multiple. Pathology Made up of both connective and glandular...

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Paget’s Disease of the Nipple

Introduction A malignant disease which has an eczematous appearance, involving the nipple. It is commonly associated with an underlying ductal carcinoma in situ. It is associated with 2% of all cases of breast cancer....

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome – PCOS (aka Hyperandrogen Chronic Anovulation) is a very common cause of amenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea. It is important as it is associated with systemic features, including acne, decreased fertility, excessive andorgen secretion...

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Postcoital Bleeding

Introduction Postcoital bleeding refers to vaginal bleeding (or spotting) that occurs after sexual intercourse, and is not related to menstruation. It is important to consider cervical cancer as possible cause, although it is rare....

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Postnatal Care

Definitions Term baby – between 37 – 41 weeks Pre-term baby – before 37 weeks Post term baby – after 42 weeks Neonate – <28 days old Stillbirth – dead baby delivered after 24...

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