Reactive Arthritis

Introduction Reactive arthritis is an acute form of spondyloarthritis associated with STI’s and acute diarrhoea. Usually occurs shortly after the initial infection, although the reactive arthritis itself is an autoimmune reaction. Aetiology Associated with STI...

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Introduction RA is a type of inflammatory arthritis. Other examples include seronegative spondyarthritides, reactive arthritis, lyme arthritis, crystal arthritis and postviral arthritis. Features of inflammatory arthritis Pain and stiffness worse in the morning and...

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Shoulder Examination

Inspection Look for scars (particularly keyhole), deformity and wasting. Compare both shoulders, and have a good look around from all angles. Make sure the patient is adequately exposed to view the shoulder from both...

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SLE – Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Introduction SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease, similar to systemic sclerosis, RA, and mixed connective tissue disease. Often, symptoms of these diseases overlap. In cases where you unable to distinguish...

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Spondyloarthritides (ankylosing spondylitis)

Introduction Spondyloarthritides (aka spondyarthritis, SpA, seronegative spondylarthropathy) are inflammatory joint diseases of the vertebral column and sacro-iliac joints, the most common of which is ankylosing spondylitis РAS. These conditions tend to mimic rheumatoid conditions...

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Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)

Introduction Systemic sclerosis aka Scleroderma is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder. Other similar diseases include SLE, RA, Sjogren’s syndrome and mixed connective tissue disease. There is a lot of overlap in the symptoms of these...

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