Read more about the article Hypertension
Its at about this point that I tell my patients to "take a couple of deep breaths, and think some relaxing thoughts..."


  • Reading time:19 mins read

Introduction Hypertension is one of the most common medical diagnoses, and also one of the most well studied. Hypertension rarely causes any symptoms in its own right, but is clinically…

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Infective Endocarditis

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Introduction Infective Endocarditis (IE) is a condition caused by infection of the endocardium by bacteria, or very rarely, fungus. It most commonly affects the heart valves (natural or prosthetic), but…

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Mitral Regurgitation

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Introduction Mitral regurgitation can be cause be either a primary valve disorder, or can be secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. In the developed world, most cases are due to degenerative…

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Read more about the article Myocarditis
Viral myocarditis on histology. This sample was taken at post-mortem, but occasionally biopsies will be taken from patients during the diagnostic work-up. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


  • Reading time:4 mins read

Introduction Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardial layer of heart muscle. Myo=muscle, card=heart, itis=inflammation. The heart wall is made of 3 layers: Endocardium (layer of endothelium & connective tissue lining…

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Normal Control of BP

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The physics Flow = pressure difference / resistance Thus, the two main factors in determining flow are pressure within a vessel, and the resistance of a vessel. Velocity The velocity…

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