Read more about the article Lichen sclerosus
Extragenital manifestations of lichen sclerosus - images taken from derment.nz.org - licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

Lichen sclerosus

  • Reading time:8 mins read

Introduction Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a relatively common chronic, autoimmune skin disorder involving the anogenital region, particularly in women. In men, it was previously referred to balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO),…

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Read more about the article Lymphoma
Hodgkin lymphoma cytology

Lymphoma

  • Reading time:37 mins read

Introduction Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system - and occurs when lymphocytes proliferate abnormally. Lymphoma be divided into two types; Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin…

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Read more about the article Menopause
Symptoms of menopause

Menopause

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Introduction Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle Menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55 Typical age is 51.5 Premature menopause¬†is defined as menopause before…

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Read more about the article Migraine
An example of a visual aura in migraine

Migraine

  • Reading time:14 mins read

Introduction Migraine is a common cause of headache affecting about 15% of individuals. Migraine headaches are typically unilateral, recurrent, and last anywhere up to 72 hours. It is more common…

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Read more about the article Myasthenia Gravis
Drooping eyelid seen in myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia Gravis

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Introduction Myasthenia Gravis is an acquired, autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction. Antibodies attack the Acetylcholine receptor. This results weakness in muscles, particularly the ocular, bulbar and proximal skeletal. "Fatigability"…

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Read more about the article Neonatal Jaundice
Image showing a baby receiving phototherapy with a "Bili light" at 450nm wavelength. Note the eye protection.

Neonatal Jaundice

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Introduction Neonatal Jaundice is very common, with 60% of babies becoming jaundiced within the first week of life. It is however, often very¬†worrying for parents, and for clinicians, the challenge…

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Read more about the article Osteoarthritis ‚Äď OA
Normal joint anatomy

Osteoarthritis – OA

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Introduction Osteoarthritis is a condition that results from the loss of cartilage at synovial joints, and is often accompanied by degeneration of the underlying bone. Radiologically there can be visible:…

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Read more about the article Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis bone structure. Image by Servier Medical Art by Servier and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

Osteoporosis

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Introduction Osteoporosis means literally porous bone Refers to decreased bone density, which leads to an increase in fracture risk Risk factors Bone density declines with age Highest risk is in…

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Read more about the article Paget Disease of the Bone
CT of the spine showing Paget's disease in the lumbar vertebrae. This is sometimes referred to as an "ivory vertebra". This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Paget Disease of the Bone

  • Reading time:13 mins read

Introduction Along with osteoporosis, Paget disease of the bone (PDB) - aka osteitis¬†deformans -¬†¬†is a common degenerative bone disease.¬†It affects up to 5% of the population in Anglo-Saxon societies. PBD…

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Read more about the article Parkinson’s Disease
Typically posture of a Parkinson's disease patient

Parkinson’s Disease

  • Reading time:35 mins read

Summary Epidemiology Mean age of onset between 45-60 Prevalence is 0.5-1% of the over 60‚Äôs in the UK 2nd most common neurodegenerative disease (after Alzheimer's) Aetiology Parkinsonism is most commonly…

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