Anaemia of Chronic Disease
Red Blood Cell

Anaemia of Chronic Disease

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Introduction Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) is common, particularly in the hospital setting. It occurs as a result of: Chronic infection Chronic inflammation Neoplasia Chronic kidney disease The anaemia is…

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Autoantibodies
Antibody

Autoantibodies

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Quick summary of Autoantibodies and their associated condition Antibody Disease Anti-dsDNA SLE Anti-mitochondrial Primary Biliary Sclerosis ASMA – Anti- smooth muscle antibody Chronic active hepatitis pANCA Ulcerative Colitis cANCA Wegner’s…

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Causes of Splenomegaly
Image showing an enlarged spleen

Causes of Splenomegaly

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Splenomegaly refers to an abnormally enlarged liver. There are many causes of splenomegaly, the most common of which can be summarised with the mnemonic CHICAGO (below). Splenomegaly may also be associated with…

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Coagulation and the Clotting Cascade
The Clotting Cascade

Coagulation and the Clotting Cascade

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Introduction Coagulation is the process by which blood changes from a liquid into a blood clot, to cause the cessation of blood loss from a blood vessel. The process involves…

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Deep Vein Thrombosis – DVT
Doppler ultrasounds demonstrating DVT. Note the red and blue overlay which indicate blood flow away from and towards the probe in a doppler scan. The lack of this colour overlay in the arrowed area is indicative of the presence of clot. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Deep Vein Thrombosis – DVT

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Summary Deep Vein Thrombosis is exactly as its name suggests: a clot in the veins. They can occur in any vein, although they are much more likely in the veins…

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DVT Exam

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Introduction Introduce yourself Check you have the right patient Explain what you are going to do Gain consent Wash hands!   Inspection Look around the bed for any mobility aids…

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Essential Thrombocythaemia

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Chronic myeloproliferative disorder, persistent increase in platelet count Associated with thrombotic or haemorrhagic complications, average age 60 years Good prognosis, risk of transformation to myelofibrosis and AML Symptoms: may be…

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Haematopoiesis – Blood Cell Formation

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Introduction All blood cells develop from haemocytoblasts The process is called haematopoiesis (sometimes just haemopoiesis) Haemocytoblasts are also known as pluripotential stem cells. These cells can replicate themselves as well…

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