Splenomegaly is a term that refers to an abnormally enlarged spleen. There are many causes of splenomegaly, the most common of which can be summarised with the mnemonic CHICAGO (below).
Splenomegaly may also be associated with an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) – as many of the causes are similar – in which case it is referred to as hepatosplenomegaly.
- C – Cancer
- H – Haematological malignancies – anaemia, leukaemia, lymphoma,
- I – Infection (CMV, HEP, HIV, TB, parasitic (malaria)). EBV is the most common community acquired
- Inflammation – sarcoid, amyloid
- C – Congestion; portal hypertension
- A – Autoimmune(RA, SLE)
- G – Glycogen storage disorders
- O – Other – amyloidosis, sarcoidosis