Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse

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Introduction Alcohol is the most dangerous addictive drug in the world. It kills around 15 Australians every day. Alcohol abuse is widespread in Western Society, and is a common presenting…

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Alcoholic Hepatitis

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Introduction Alcoholic hepatitis is a very common cause of liver injury. It is caused by excessive alcohol intake. Typically there will be steatosis of the liver. In this pathological change, fat globules…

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Bilirubin Metabolism and Jaundice

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Production of Bilirubin Every haem molecule will produce one molecule of bilirubin. These molecules are found in haemoglobin and myoglobin. Also, cytochrome enzymes will also produce one molecule of bilirubin.…

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Causes of Hepatomegaly

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Massive = "CRAM"Cancer - primary and secondaryRight heart failureAlcoholic liver disease with fatty infiltrationMyeloproliferative diseases (ie Chronic myeloid laekaemia, PRubraVera,Essential Throbocythaemia) Moderate = "FAILL"  all of the above plusFatty liver…

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Clinical Consequences of Liver Disease

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Vitamins A, D, E and K are all stored in the liver, as is vitamin B12. Therefore, in liver damage, you can’t store as many of these as you would…

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EBV – Epstein Barr Virus

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Introduction Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a type of human herpes virus. It is extremely widespread, and is contracted by close person to person contact. It can cause a wide range…

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Introduction The term haemochromatosis is usually used to describe a group of autosomal recessive disorders of iron metabolism. It is sometime called hereditary haemochromatosis and abbreviated to HHC. The most…

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Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS)

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Hepatorenal syndrome is renal failure secondary to liver disease. It is a life-threatening acute complication of liver failure. It is most commonly seen in alcoholic hepatitis, although can occur in…

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Liver Physiology

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FunctionThe two roles of the liver are:Processing of absorbed materialsExcretion of unwanted products and secretion of stuff to help with fat digestionStructureThe liver is divided into many thousands of ‘lobules’…

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