Read more about the article Cranial Nerve Testing
Unlabelled diagram of cranial nerves. Image by by jlcampbell104 is marked under CC0 1.0

Cranial Nerve Testing

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Overview Olfactory I Quick method – ask the patient if: They notice smells in the morning (e.g. coffee, toast) They notice smells that others do They think their sense of…

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Read more about the article Dementia


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Introduction Dementia is a progressive global decline cognitive function, without impairment of consciousness. It is typically defined as a syndrome secondary to one or more of multiple causes, rather than a…

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Read more about the article Descending (Motor) Pathways
Spinal cord tracts - ascending and descending pathways

Descending (Motor) Pathways

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Tract Location of Upper Motor Neurons Destination Site of Crossover Action CORTICOSPINAL   Corticobulbar   Primary Motor Cortex (pyramidal cells) Cranial Nerves III – XII Brainstem Conscious Motor control of…

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Read more about the article Encephalitis
A large necrotic brain lesion from amoebic encephalitis. This is not typical of the appearance of other types of encephalitis. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


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Introduction Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain parenchyma that is usually caused by an infection. The infection can be viral or bacterial in origin, but is most commonly viral. HSV…

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Read more about the article Epilepsy
A patient undergoing an EEG during the diagnostic work-up for epilepsy. Image by Tim Sheerman-Chase is licensed with CC BY 2.0


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Summary Definitions Seizure – spontaneous uncontrolled abnormal brain activity Epilepsy – a tendency to have seizures. Epilepsy is a symptom, and not a true condition. Epilepsy can be diagnosed after…

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Read more about the article Extradural Haemorrhage
Extradural Haemoatoma

Extradural Haemorrhage

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Extradural Haemorrhage aka Epidural Haematoma Blood collects between the dura mater and the bone of the skull. The dura is stripped away from the skull – indicating a high pressure…

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