Read more about the article Huntington’s Disease
MRI of the brain showing reduction in brain tissue volume - consistent with Huntington's disease

Huntington’s Disease

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Introduction Huntington’s disease – HD - (aka Huntington’s chorea, named after George Huntington [1872]) is an autosomal dominant disorder that shows full penetrance. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that…

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Read more about the article Lower Limb Examination
Tendon reflex hammer

Lower Limb Examination

  • Reading time:28 mins read

The key aim is to identify the anatomical site of the lesion: central (UMN - brain and spinal cord)versus peripheral (LMN - nerve roots and peripheral nerves). • NB –…

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Read more about the article Lumbar Puncture (LP)
A selection of spinal needles. Not the main needle pictures does not come with a stylet

Lumbar Puncture (LP)

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Lumbar puncture is a procedure conducted to ascertain if there is an acute meningitis or sub arachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), to detect inflammation in the spinal cord (e.g. in multiple sclerosis)…

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Read more about the article Malignant Hypertension
Signs seen in papilloedema

Malignant Hypertension

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Introduction Malignant hypertension (aka - hypertensive crisis) is a very high blood pressure that typically comes on suddenly and quickly. It is defined as systolic blood pressure of >180 mmHg and /…

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Read more about the article Medication Overuse Headache
Medication overuse headache

Medication Overuse Headache

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Introduction Medication overuse headache (AKA rebound headache) usually occurs in patients with a past medical history of severe headache, for which they have frequently/ excessively used analgesics. Clinical Features Chronic…

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Read more about the article Migraine
An example of a visual aura in migraine


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Introduction Migraine is a common cause of headache affecting about 15% of individuals. Migraine headaches are typically unilateral, recurrent, and last anywhere up to 72 hours. It is more common…

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Read more about the article Motor Neuron Disease (MND)
Perhaps the most famous sufferer of MND - Stephen Hawking

Motor Neuron Disease (MND)

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Introduction Motor neuron disease (aka MND, Motor neurone disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - ALS) is degenerative neurological disease, seen worldwide. In MND is degeneration of motor neurons in the motor…

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Read more about the article Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Clinical features of multiple sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

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Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the CNS. It results from demyelination and axonal loss of nerves in the CNS. Peripheral nerves are not affected. It…

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Muscle Disorders

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Introduction The main feature of muscle disorders is weakness without reflex loss. This helps us to differentiate these disorders from the neurological causes of weakness: UMN lesion – weakness with…

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Read more about the article Myasthenia Gravis
Drooping eyelid seen in myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia Gravis

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Introduction Myasthenia Gravis is an acquired, autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction. Antibodies attack the Acetylcholine receptor. This results weakness in muscles, particularly the ocular, bulbar and proximal skeletal. "Fatigability"…

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