Read more about the article Amblyopia
Snellen Chart


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Overview Amblyopia is a condition whereby there is a reduction in visual acuity due to a problem with focussing in early childhood. This results in reduced acuity as the brain…

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Read more about the article Cataracts
Photo of a cataract with a dilated pupil


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Introduction A cataract is an opacification of the lens of the eye. Cataracts tend to cause gradual loss of visual acuity, with normal pupillary response. Cataracts are the most common…

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Read more about the article Dry Eyes
Dry Eyes

Dry Eyes

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Introduction Dry eye is a common presenting complaint, especially in older patients. It affects 15-30% of people aged over 50. It is usually not indicative of any serious underlying disease,…

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Read more about the article Enophthalmos
CT scan showing left orbital blowout fracture of the inferior orbital wall. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


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Introduction Enophthlamos refers to a posterior displacement of the eye ball within the eye socket. It is the opposite of exophthalmos - which refers to an anterior displacement of the eye ball…

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Read more about the article Giant Cell Arteritis
Arteries of the head

Giant Cell Arteritis

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Introduction Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) aka Temporal Arteritis is an immune-mediated inflammatory condition of the medium to large arteries which particularly affects the branches of the carotid artery. It presents with…

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Read more about the article Glaucoma
Anatomy of the Eye. Illustration from Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site.


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Introduction Definition of glaucoma – gradual death of the optic nerve often associated with high intraocular pressure. Increased intraocular pressure is usually due to an imbalance in aqueous humour production…

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Lid Disease

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Chalazion Granuloma of meibomian glands (reactions to accumulation of lipid following duct blockage) Initially a hard and inflamed lump in the lid, settles to leave a discrete lump, visible on…

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Read more about the article Macular Degeneration
Image of the retina from a patient with macular degeneration. Note the darker than normal colour of the macular, and the presence of Drusen on the retina. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Macular Degeneration

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Introduction Macular degeneration (aka age-related maculopathy - ARM) is a condition that causes gradual visual loss, typically in older patients. It can be split into two types: Dry - atrophic Slow…

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Orbital cellulitis Ophthalmic emergency, infection of soft tissues behind orbital septum extension of infection from periorbital structures (ethmoid sinusitis), face, globe, lacrimal sac or dental infection direct inoculation of orbit…

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Pupillary Defects

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For a really good demonstration of how this works, see Eye simulator V2.0 Physiology There are two nerves involved in pupillary responses: Optic Nerve (II) – this is the afferent…

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