ABG – Arterial Blood Gas – taking a sample
Taking an arterial blood gas sample. Image by iem-student.org is licensed with CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

ABG – Arterial Blood Gas – taking a sample

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Overview An arterial blood gas sample is an important investgiation in the acutely unwell patient, particularly those with respiratory distress. Venous blood gas samples are increasingly used to assess the…

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Anticholinergics
Drugs in medicine

Anticholinergics

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Anticholinergics (aka antimuscarinic agents) are usually inhaled, but can be given IV in hospital. They are used in respiratory conditions as adjuncts to steroids and β2 receptors agonists. It is also…

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ARDS – Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Example of ARDS on X-ray. Image from Wikimedia Commons. Author: Samir

ARDS – Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

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Introduction ARDS – acute respiratory distress syndrome and ALI – acute lung injury, are essentially the same disease; ARDS is the more serious end of the spectrum, and for the…

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Arterial Blood Gas – ABG –  Interpretation
Oxygen dissociation curve

Arterial Blood Gas – ABG – Interpretation

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Introduction to Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation Arterial Blood Gas interpretation can be a daunting and difficult skill for any medical student or junior doctor. Try to look at as many…

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Asthma
Pathology of an asthma attack. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Asthma

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Introduction Asthma is a chronic lung condition in which there is chronic inflammation of the airways, and hypersensitivity of the airways. Symptoms include wheeze, cough, chest tightness and SOB (dyspnoea).…

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Beta-agonists
Salbutamol metered dose inhaler

Beta-agonists

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β2- agonists These act on β2 adrenoceptors on bronchial smooth muscle, causing dilation of the smooth muscle whatever the cause. They are selective because they only target the β2 receptors…

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Bronchiectasis
Pathology of bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis

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Introduction and Aeitology This is a disease that causes local irreversible dilation of the bronchial tree. It is an obstructive lung disease. It is almost always a result of bronchial…

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Bronchiolitis
An example of intercostal recession - in this example seen in a neonate. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Bronchiolitis

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Introduction This is the most common serious respiratory infection during infancy. It comes in winter epidemics, during which time, 2-3% of all infants are admitted to hospital each year. The…

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Bronchitis
Lungs

Bronchitis

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Definition The term bronchitis can be confusing. It is poorly defined, and sometimes mis-used. Bronchitis can be acute - typically caused by respiratory tract infections (usually viral), or chronic, typically…

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Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Carbon monoxide molecule

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

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Introduction Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning, also known as the “silent killer” can be a life-threatening situation. CO is an odourless, colourless gas (hence 'silent'). CO binds to haemoglobin (carboxyhemoglobin) with…

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