Read more about the article Chest X-Ray
A normal CXR in a healthy young male. In particular note the normal markings, clear costophrenic angles, and clear lung fields. There is quite a large gastric bubble, but this is not considered pathologic.

Chest X-Ray

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Introduction The chest x-ray (also known as CXR¬†or¬†Chest Radiograph)¬†is probably the most commonly performed medical imaging procedure. An x-ray can typically discern 4 different densities: Air (black) Metal - i.e.…

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Read more about the article COPD
X-ray of patient with COPD during an acute exacerbation. Note the flattened diaphragm (sign of chronic COPD), and the patchy consolidation the right lung - indicative of an infective exacerbation


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Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)¬†is a chronic respiratory condition¬†characterised by airflow obstruction, most commonly the result of a combination¬†chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Bronchitis - Cough and sputum production on…

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Read more about the article Cromones
Drugs in medicine


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Cromones ‚Äď e.g.Sodium cromoglicate, nedocromil sodium This is often described as a mast cell stabilizer. It prevents the release of inflammatory mediators (such as histamine) from mast cells. These drugs…

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Read more about the article CURB-65 Score
Scoring systemis in medicine

CURB-65 Score

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CURB-65 The severity of community-acquired pneumonia¬†can be assessed by using the CURB-65 score (1 point for each): Confusion Urea >7mmol/L Respiratory rate ‚Č• 30/min BP < 90 systolic and/or 60mmHg…

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Read more about the article Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
Signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis

Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

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Introduction Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-limiting inherited disease in Caucasians. It is caused by a genetic mutation that alters mucus production, resulting in a more viscous solution. It…

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Inhaled Corticosteroids

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Introduction Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are used for their anti-inflammatory effects in asthma and COPD. They are available as single agents, or in combination with other inhaled medications, such as beta-agonists…

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There are loads of types of inhalers! You need to be able to tell a patient how to use each type, and what type of drugs can go in each…

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