Recurrent Cough

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Recurrent Cough This is a very common complain for children. Common causes include: Asthma ‚Äď the most common cause of childhood cough. Typically symptoms (such as wheeze and breathlessness may…

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Respiratory Examination

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For a quick overview of the respiratory system exam, please see the Introduction to Respiratory Exam article General Instructions Always examine the patient from their right. Make sure you get…

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Respiratory Infections

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General Overview Respiratory disorders in children are extremely common. The incidence generally decline with age, such that in middle teenage years, they are rare. Children <5 will have on average…

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Respiratory Physiology

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Inspiration is an active process, but normal expiration is a passive process. Forced expiration recruits the abdominal muscles to help force out air. Muscles of breathingDiaphragm – this is the main…

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Read more about the article Sleep Apnoea
CPAP Machine

Sleep Apnoea

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Introduction Sleep apnoea (aka Obstructive Sleep Apnoea¬†or¬†OSA)¬†describes a condition in which there are multiple (often frequent) pauses in respiration ("apnoeas") during sleep, as a result of upper airway collapse, usually…

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Read more about the article Smoking Cessation
Smoking Cessation

Smoking Cessation

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Introduction Smoking is the number one risk factor associated with preventable disease and premature death. The WHO estimates that 5.4 million people die prematurely each year as a result of…

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Read more about the article Spirometry
Flow-Volume Loop spirometry


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Introduction Spirometry is the most widely used pulmonary function test¬†(aka¬†lung function test). It measures the volume and flow of air during inspiration and expiration; it¬†is an assessment of how effectively…

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TB – Tuberculosis

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Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)¬†of which there are three types that infect humans: M. tuberculosis -¬†by far the most common type M.…

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