Abdominal Artery Ischaemia and Occlusion
Ischaemic bowel on CT. Note the dilated bowel loops and thickened bowel wall, as indicated by the arrow.

Abdominal Artery Ischaemia and Occlusion

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Also known as Ischaemic Bowel or Mesenteric Ischaemia, abdominal artery ischaemia can be the result of many pathologies and can be acute or chronic. It most commonly presents as severe…

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Abdominal Examination
The 9 regions and 4 quadrants of the abdomen. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/17e4eea8-a005-45af-b835-f756a014cd48@3.

Abdominal Examination

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Summary of Abdominal Examination Introduce yourself, check right patient (name DOB, wrist-band) explain that you are going to perform an abdominal examination and what this will involve, and ask the…

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Abdominal X-Ray
Toxic Megacolon on abdominal x-ray

Abdominal X-Ray

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Introduction An abdominal x-ray (AXR) is a commonly performed x-ray for some gastrointestinal presentations. Generally, its use is limited - many abdominal conditions are better diagnosed clinically, or with an…

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Aneurysm and AAA
Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Image modified from original images taken from SMART by Servier Medical Art by Servier and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

Aneurysm and AAA

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Definitions An aneurysm is an artery that has a localised dilation, with a permanent diameter of >1.5x that expected of the particular artery. True Aneurysm – the wall of the…

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Appendicitis
A CT scan with red arrow indicating an inflamed appendix - diagnostic for appendicitis. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Appendicitis

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Appendicitis is the most common indication for abdominal surgery in children. Appendicitis is acute inflammation of the appendix   Epidemiology About 5% of the population will have appendicitis at some…

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ASA Physical Status Classification System
Scoring systemis in medicine

ASA Physical Status Classification System

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System to assess the fitness of patients before surgery Status 1: Healthy patient Status 2: Mild systemic disease Status 3: Severe systemic disease Status 4: Severe systemic disease that is…

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Breast Cancer
Normal breast anatomy. Image from CDC.

Breast Cancer

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Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of death from cancer, after lung cancer. There are more published studies (on PubMed)…

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Breast Examination
Normal breast anatomy. Image from CDC.

Breast Examination

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Background Info Presentations of Breast Disease Lump Pain - Rare in breast cancer Asymmetry - Change in breast size – particularly related to the menstrual cycle Change in breast feature…

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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Anatomy of carpal tunnel syndrome. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

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Introduction Carpal tunnel syndrome is a relatively common disorder, which can be unilateral or bilateral, caused by compression of the median nerve at the level of the wrist, as it…

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Cholangitis
Gallbladder

Cholangitis

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Introduction Cholangitis is inflammation of the bile duct. It is typically the results of a bacterial infection (often secondary to gallstones), but can also occur in other conditions, such as…

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