ACE Inhibitors
Renin-angiotension-aldosterone system

ACE Inhibitors

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Introduction ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) e.g. ramipril, perindopril, enalapril, lisinopril, captopril are commonly used medications to treat hypertension and heart failure - they are considered first line agents in both…

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Amiodarone
Amiodarone vial for injection

Amiodarone

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Indication and dose Amiodarone is an anti-arrhythmic drug. Used particularly when other drugs have been ineffective or contra-indicated. It is most commonly used in atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter, but…

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Angiography
A coronary angiogram showing good blood flow int he left circumflex artery after a stunting procedure. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Angiography

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Introduction Angiography is a technique used to visualise the inside of of blood vessels, whereby radio-opaque die is injected into the patient, and imaging studies are subsequently performed. These can…

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Angioplasty (PCI)
Angioplasty with stent

Angioplasty (PCI)

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Angioplasty (percutaneous coronary intervention - PCI) Angioplasty - also known as PCI - Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, or PTCA - Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Angioplasty is able to open partially closed vessels…

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Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Drugs in medicine

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)

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Introduction Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are usually used in hypertension, HF and post-MI, usually when an ACE-inhibitor has been ineffective or not tolerated. They are also used ot treat…

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Aortic Stenosis – AS
Aortic Stenosis seen on post mortem. The aorta has been removed in this image to better demonstrate the aortic valve

Aortic Stenosis – AS

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Introduction Aortic Stenosis is the narrowing of the three cusps that form the aortic valve. It is distinct from aortic sclerosis which is generally a milder precursor to aortic stenosis. Aortic Stenosis…

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ASD – Atrial Septal Defect

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An Atrial septal defect is a congenital congenital heart defect that causes a shunting of blood from the left to the right atria. L-to-R shunt – ACYANOTIC There are two…

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Atrial Fibrillation – AF
Atrial fibrillation on ECG. Note the absence of p waves, and the flat baseline

Atrial Fibrillation – AF

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Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common tachycardia. It can be caused by many other underlying illness, especially in the acutely unwell patient (such as sepsis, pneumonia, hyperthyroidism or other illness).…

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Beta Blockers
Drugs in medicine

Beta Blockers

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Introduction Beta blockers are competitive inhibitors of beta-adrenergic receptors. There are many kinds of vary half lives and lipid solubility. They are used mainly as anti-arrhythmic agents, but are also…

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Calcium Channel Blockers
Drugs in medicine

Calcium Channel Blockers

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Introduction Calcium channel blockers are a group of medications that use several different mechanisms to disrupt the flow of calcium through calcium channels. They are widely used as antihypertensives and…

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