Abdominal Artery Ischaemia and Occlusion
Ischaemic bowel on CT. Note the dilated bowel loops and thickened bowel wall, as indicated by the arrow.

Abdominal Artery Ischaemia and Occlusion

  • Reading time:3 mins read

Also known as Ischaemic Bowel or Mesenteric Ischaemia, abdominal artery ischaemia can be the result of many pathologies and can be acute or chronic. It most commonly presents as severe…

Continue Reading Abdominal Artery Ischaemia and Occlusion
Abdominal Examination
The 9 regions and 4 quadrants of the abdomen. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/17e4eea8-a005-45af-b835-f756a014cd48@3.

Abdominal Examination

  • Reading time:18 mins read

Summary of Abdominal Examination Introduce yourself, check right patient (name DOB, wrist-band) explain that you are going to perform an abdominal examination and what this will involve, and ask the…

Continue Reading Abdominal Examination
Abdominal X-Ray
Toxic Megacolon on abdominal x-ray

Abdominal X-Ray

  • Reading time:4 mins read

Introduction An abdominal x-ray (AXR) is a commonly performed x-ray for some gastrointestinal presentations. Generally, its use is limited - many abdominal conditions are better diagnosed clinically, or with an…

Continue Reading Abdominal X-Ray
Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol abuse and addiction

Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse

  • Reading time:34 mins read

Introduction Alcohol is the most dangerous addictive drug in the world. It kills around 15 Australians every day. Alcohol abuse is widespread in Western Society, and is a common presenting…

Continue Reading Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse
Alcoholic Hepatitis
Mallory body seen on histology. Mallory bodies are eosinophilic inclusions that have a "rope-like" appearance. Note the highlights body on this image. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Alcoholic Hepatitis

  • Reading time:4 mins read

Introduction Alcoholic hepatitis is a very common cause of liver injury. It is caused by excessive alcohol intake. Typically there will be¬†steatosis¬†of the liver. In this pathological change, fat globules…

Continue Reading Alcoholic Hepatitis
Altered Bowel Habit
Altered bowel habit poop emoji

Altered Bowel Habit

  • Reading time:7 mins read

Altered bowel habit is a very common presenting complaint and can be acute or chronic. For further information, also see the articles diarrhoea and constipation. Causes Acute gastroenteritis Simple constipation…

Continue Reading Altered Bowel Habit
Autoimmune Hepatitis
Autoimmune Hepatitis histology - showing the characters feature of portal mononuclear cell inflammatory infiltrate extending into the lobule (interface hepatitis).

Autoimmune Hepatitis

  • Reading time:3 mins read

Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a cause of¬†chronic hepatitis.¬†It is also sometimes referred to as¬†chronic active hepatitis. ¬†Any hepatitis that typically lasts >6 months is referred to as¬†chronic. It is…

Continue Reading Autoimmune Hepatitis
Barrett’s Oesophagus
Barretts Oesophagus Histology - characterised by the presence of goblet cells in the oesophagus - which stain blue on the alcaic blue staining slide. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Barrett’s Oesophagus

  • Reading time:4 mins read

Introduction Also known as Columnar Lined oesophagus (CLO) This is a complication of long term oesophageal reflux. It looks a bit like white pasty finger like projections coming up from…

Continue Reading Barrett’s Oesophagus
Bilirubin Metabolism and Jaundice
Jaundice with scleral icterus. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Bilirubin Metabolism and Jaundice

  • Reading time:8 mins read

Production of Bilirubin Every haem molecule will produce one molecule of bilirubin. These molecules are found in haemoglobin and myoglobin. Also, cytochrome enzymes will also produce one molecule of bilirubin.…

Continue Reading Bilirubin Metabolism and Jaundice
Causes of Hepatomegaly
Image of liver showing hepatomeagaly

Causes of Hepatomegaly

  • Reading time:1 mins read

Hepatomegaly describes an¬†enlarged liver.¬†There are many causes of hepatomegaly, and learning some mnemonics might help you to memorise some of them! Sometimes it is associated with an enlarged spleen -…

Continue Reading Causes of Hepatomegaly