• Reading time:5 mins read

Organism Leishmania (protozoa) Transmission Via sandflies Leishmania anastigotes infect sandflies when they take them up with their blood meal. Pathogenesis The adult female sand ingests the pathogen in the form…

Continue ReadingLeishmaniasis


  • Reading time:2 mins read

Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease Organism mycobacterium leprae = intracellular parasite. Incubation period tuberculoid = 2-5 years lepromatous = 8-11 years   Transmission Spread in nasal discharges to the…

Continue ReadingLeprosy


  • Reading time:4 mins read

Leptospirosis: also known as Weil's Disease Organism Spirochaete¬†bacterium called¬†Leptospira¬†spp incubation: 7-14 days Transmission Via the urine of an infected animal (contagious as long as it is still moist) Rats, mice,…

Continue ReadingLeptospirosis

Lumbar Puncture (LP)

  • Reading time:13 mins read

Lumbar puncture is a procedure conducted to ascertain if there is an acute meningitis or sub arachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), to detect inflammation in the spinal cord (e.g. in multiple sclerosis)…

Continue ReadingLumbar Puncture (LP)

Lyme Disease

  • Reading time:2 mins read

Organism Borrelia Burgdorferi (spirochaete) Incubation: 7-14 days Transmission Vector=ticks Animal hosts=deer/rodents Epidemiology Commonest vector borne illness in USA Focally endemic in woodland of north America - infections mostly occur in…

Continue ReadingLyme Disease


  • Reading time:3 mins read

Introduction Presentation can be vague, any or all of wide variety of symptoms. Always should be considered in unwell patients returning from or having passed though endemic areas Organism Parasite…

Continue ReadingMalaria


  • Reading time:5 mins read

Introduction Now relatively rare in the UK Older children have more severe disease Caused by the Morbillivirus, which is a type of paramyoxovirus This is a single stranded, enveloped RNA…

Continue ReadingMeasles


  • Reading time:21 mins read

Definitions Meningitis ‚Äď although this technically only means inflammation of the meninges, it is usually taken to mean infection. Meningitis is far more common in infants and children than in…

Continue ReadingMeningitis
Read more about the article Mumps
Child with parotid swelling due to mumps


  • Reading time:4 mins read

Background Mumps is a NOTIFIABLE DISEASE in the UK Another viral respiratory tract infection. Caused by the mumps virus. Most common in winter/spring Spread by droplet infection Not as infectious…

Continue ReadingMumps