Leishmaniasis

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Organism Leishmania (protozoa) Transmission Via sandflies Leishmania anastigotes infect sandflies when they take them up with their blood meal. Pathogenesis The adult female sand ingests the pathogen in the form…

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Leprosy

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Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease Organism mycobacterium leprae = intracellular parasite. Incubation period tuberculoid = 2-5 years lepromatous = 8-11 years   Transmission Spread in nasal discharges to the…

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Leptospirosis

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Leptospirosis: also known as Weil's Disease Organism Spirochaete¬†bacterium called¬†Leptospira¬†spp incubation: 7-14 days Transmission Via the urine of an infected animal (contagious as long as it is still moist) Rats, mice,…

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Lumbar Puncture (LP)

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Lumbar puncture is a procedure conducted to ascertain if there is an acute meningitis or sub arachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), to detect inflammation in the spinal cord (e.g. in multiple sclerosis)…

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Lyme Disease

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Organism Borrelia Burgdorferi (spirochaete) Incubation: 7-14 days Transmission Vector=ticks Animal hosts=deer/rodents Epidemiology Commonest vector borne illness in USA Focally endemic in woodland of north America - infections mostly occur in…

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Malaria

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Introduction Presentation can be vague, any or all of wide variety of symptoms. Always should be considered in unwell patients returning from or having passed though endemic areas Organism Parasite…

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Measles

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Introduction Now relatively rare in the UK Older children have more severe disease Caused by the Morbillivirus, which is a type of paramyoxovirus This is a single stranded, enveloped RNA…

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Meningitis

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Definitions Meningitis ‚Äď although this technically only means inflammation of the meninges, it is usually taken to mean infection. Meningitis is far more common in infants and children than in…

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Child with parotid swelling due to mumps

Mumps

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Background Mumps is a NOTIFIABLE DISEASE in the UK Another viral respiratory tract infection. Caused by the mumps virus. Most common in winter/spring Spread by droplet infection Not as infectious…

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