Intermenstrual Bleeding

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Introduction Intermenstrual bleeding (IMB) is a presentation, rather than a diagnosis, and can be indicative of a number of underlying disorders. It refers to vaginal bleeding at any time during…

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Introduction Menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle Occurs between the ages of 45 and 55 Typical age is 51.5 Premature menopause is defined as menopause before the age…

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Introduction Menorrhagia describes abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding (often associated with increased period pain) during periods. It is a common presenting compliant, and a cause is not always found. Endometrial carcinoma…

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Normal Physiology of Pregnancy

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Introduction In pregnancy almost all of the mother’s organ systems need to adapt, and several factors, such as age, ethnicity, and genetic factors all affect how well she adapts to…

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Ovarian Cancer

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Introduction Ovarian cancer refers to several types of tumour arising from the ovaries. It is the leading cause of gynaecological cancer death in the UK.  The early symptoms are often mild and…

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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease – PID
CHlamydia associated discharge seen covering the cervix on speculum examination

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease – PID

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Introduction Pelvic inflammatory disease is an inflammatory condition (often secondary to infection), affecting any part of the higher female reproductive system, e.g.; uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries. Salpingitis – this term…

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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
A polycystic ovary as shown on USS

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

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Introduction Polycystic ovarian syndrome - PCOS (aka Hyperandrogen Chronic Anovulation) is a very common cause of amenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea. It is important as it is associated with systemic features, including acne, decreased…

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Postcoital Bleeding

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Introduction Postcoital bleeding refers to vaginal bleeding (or spotting) that occurs after sexual intercourse, and is not related to menstruation. It is important to consider cervical cancer as possible cause,…

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Postnatal Care

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Definitions Term baby – between 37 – 41 weeks Pre-term baby – before 37 weeks Post term baby – after 42 weeks Neonate - <28 days old Stillbirth – dead…

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Postpartum Haemorrhage

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Introduction Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) refers to abnormal bleeding after pregnancy. It is typically defined as primary (typically with 24 hours of delivery) or secondary (usually after discharge home). Primary postpartum…

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