Complications of Pregnancy
Obstetrics and gynaecology

Complications of Pregnancy

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Complications of pregnancy can be divided into: Complications of presentation Caesarian indications Bleeding in early pregnancy Complications of delivery Shoulder dystocia Instrumental delivery Induction of labour Episiotomy and tears Disorders…

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Contraception
Empty rolled condom

Contraception

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Background info 1/3 of pregnancies are unplanned The UK government now promotes long acting reversible contraception (LARC) (e.g. IUD, IUS, implant)as the best method of contraception because: Reduced chance of…

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Contraception – barrier methods
Empty rolled condom

Contraception – barrier methods

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Condoms This is a form of barrier contraception, and stops the sperm from reaching the egg. These are easily accessible, cheap to buy, and can also be procured free of…

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Contraception – Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill – COCP
Oral contraceptive pill

Contraception – Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill – COCP

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Introduction Combined oral contraceptive pills contain both oestrogen and progestogen. This method is: Reliable and reversible Can reduce dysmennorrhoae (painful menstruation) and menoorhagia (heavy bleeding) Can reduce PMT (pre-menstrual tension) Reduce…

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Contraception – Hormonal Injections
Depo Provera Injection

Contraception – Hormonal Injections

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Introduction There are two brands: Depo-Provera – administered every 12 weeks Injection of choice Aka Medroxyprogesterone acetate Noristerat – administered every 8 weeks Depo-provera is more effective than Noristerat Usually only…

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Contraception – Intrauterine Devices (IUD)

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Introduction Intrauterine devices (IUD) are a commonly prescribed form of contraception. They are a LARC - long-active reversible contraception, and as such are often recommended ahead of other forms of…

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CTG – Cardiotocography
Cardiotocography machine. The fetal heart rate is show on the left (121), fetal movements on the right (16) and mothers heart rate in the bottom right (91). Image by Eliran t is licensed with CC BY-SA 4.0

CTG – Cardiotocography

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Introduction A cardiotocograph (CTG) is used in obstetrics as a method by which to monitor both the foetal heart and uterine contractions. CTG is used used in conjunction with partogram…

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Culture and Contraception
Empty rolled condom

Culture and Contraception

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Introduction When discussing contraception with any patient, it may be useful to understand a little about the patient’s cultural and / or religious background. Obviously, it is not the medical…

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Dystocia
An example of shoulder dystocia, which in this image is being treated with the application of suprapubic pressure by an external force

Dystocia

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Introduction Dystocia means difficulty during labour - and typically results from abnormal fetal size or position. It occurs in about 1% of deliveries. The most common type of dystocia is shoulder…

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Ectopic Pregnancy
Tubal ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic Pregnancy

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Introduction Ectopic pregnancy is defined as: Implantation of conceptious outside uterine cavity When women of reproductive age present with pelvic pain and positive pregnancy test assume ectopic pregnancy until proven…

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