Complications of Pregnancy

Complications of pregnancy can be divided into: Complications of presentation Caesarian indications Bleeding in early pregnancy Complications of delivery Shoulder dystocia Instrumental delivery Induction of labour Episiotomy and tears Disorders associated with pregnancy Gestational...

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Condoms

Condoms This is a form of barrier contraception, and stops the sperm from reaching the egg. These are easily accessible, cheap to buy, and can also be procured free of charge from health care...

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Contraception

Background info 1/3 of pregnancies are unplanned The UK government now promotes long acting reversible contraception (LARC) (e.g. IUD, IUS, implant)as the best method of contraception because: Reduced chance of patient error – e.g....

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Contraception – Hormonal Injections

Introduction There are two brands: Depo-Provera – administered every 12 weeks Injection of choice Aka Medroxyprogesterone acetate Noristerat – administered every 8 weeks Depo-provera is more effective than Noristerat Usually only offered as short-term treatement...

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CTG – Cardiotocography

Introduction A CTG is used in obstetrics as a method by which to monitor both the fetal heart and uterine contractions. They are used in conjunction with partograms to monitor labour, but are done...

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Dystocia

Dystocia means difficulty during labour. It occurs in about 1% of deliveries. Breech presentation can cause dystocia. Aetiology Diabetes mellitus Fetal macrosomia –  – often caused by maternal diabetes Maternal obesity Induction of labour...

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Ectopic Pregnancy

Introduction Ectopic pregnancy is defined as: Implantation of conceptious outside uterine cavity When women of reproductive age present with pelvic pain and positive pregnancy test assume ectopic pregnancy until proven otherwise. The main differential is...

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Emergency Contraception

Introduction Emergency contraception is an important post-coital method of contraception to prevent pregnancy from occurring. These methods do not cause abortion. Instead, they prevent ovulation, fertilisation, and/or implantation. There are three methods by which...

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