Acromegaly

Acromegaly is a disorder that occurs due to an excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) Epidemiology Prevalence is approximately 40-60 million Affects M: F with a ratio of 1: 1 Mainly affects people between...

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Addison’s Disease – Adrenal Insufficiency

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency occurs where there is destruction of the adrenal cortex and reduced output of adrenal hormones. There are two types of adrenal insufficiency: Primary hypoadrenalism (aka Addison’s disease) Usually due to autoimmune...

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Adrenal Physiology

Introduction This article looks at adrenal physiology and explains the production and effects of adrenal products. For more information on mechanisms of blood pressure regulation, secretion of ions, and other effects related to the...

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Conn’s Syndrome

Introduction Conn’s syndrome is primary hyperaldosteronism – an excess of aldosterone. As opposed to Cushing’s Syndrome – which is an excess of glucocorticoids, and as opposed to Addison’s disease which is a lack of...

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Cushing’s Syndrome

Introduction The term Cushing’s syndrome is used to describe state of excess free circulating glucocorticoid (cortisol). Florid disease is easy to spot, but subtle cases can be more difficult. The nature of glucocorticoid levels...

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Diabetes Insipidus

Introduction Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterised by the passage of large volumes (>3L/day) of dilute urine due to impaired water resorption by the kidney, because of reduced ADH secretion from the posterior pituitary...

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Diabetic Foot Check

In diabetes it is important to check distal circulation. Diabetes affects blood vessels, causing a loss of blood supply that can lead to ischemia and tissues damage. This is particularly the case in the...

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Diabetic Retinopathy

This is the most common cause of blind registration for patients in the UK between 15 and 65 years.   Pathology When were they diagnosed with DM- the longer the duration the higher the...

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Euthyroid Sick Syndrome

This condition is not very well understood! This is a condition where TSH and T3/T4 levels are low, but there is no underlying pathology of the thyroid. These test results are the same as...

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