Read more about the article Causes of Splenomegaly
Image showing an enlarged spleen

Causes of Splenomegaly

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Splenomegaly is a term that refers to an abnormally enlarged spleen. There are many causes of splenomegaly, the most common of which can be summarised with the mnemonic CHICAGO (below). Splenomegaly…

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Read more about the article Cholangitis
Gallbladder

Cholangitis

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Introduction Cholangitis is inflammation of the bile duct. It is typically the results of a bacterial infection (often secondary to gallstones), but can also occur in other conditions, such as…

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Read more about the article Cholecystitis
Gallbladder

Cholecystitis

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Acute Cholecystitis This is caused by a blockage in the cystic duct or neck of the gallbladder (95% of cases are gallstones or gallstone precursor ‘sludge’) It is unlikely to…

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Read more about the article Coeliac Disease
Left - normal histology of the small bowel. Right: Histology of the mucosa in Coeliac disease. Note the hypertrophy of the pits, and atrophy of the villi to create an almost flat mucosal surface, vastly reducing the surface area

Coeliac Disease

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Introduction Coeliac disease is a common but often under diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder. Its presentation is often vague and a low level of suspicion should be applied to anybody who presents…

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Colorectal Cancer

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Summary This article refers to cancer of the large bowel. Interestingly, the small bowel is a very rare site for carcinoma, despite the fact it has the highest cell turnover…

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Read more about the article Constipation
Constipation

Constipation

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Introduction Constipation is a symptom and not a condition. It is most common in women and the elderly. Often it is more like a perception that a real entity. It…

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Read more about the article Diarrhoea
diarrhoea poop emoji

Diarrhoea

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Introduction Diarrhoea is defined as the passage of a lose liquid stool. Urgency, which often accompanies diarrhoea, is the sensation of the need to defecate without delay! Urgency can be…

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