Diverticulitis

Summary What is diverticular disease? It is an acquired condition, in which there are small out-pouchings of the mucosa of the large intestine, known as diverticulae. Definitions Diverticulosis – the presence of diverticulae in...

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Dysphagia

Introduction Dysphagia literally means ‘trouble swallowing’. It is not a condition in itself, but a symptom. There can be many causes varying from a muscular spasm or neurological cause, to oesophageal malignancy. As a...

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Faecal Incontinence

Introduction Occurs in 15% aged >65Y, increasing incidence with age in men only. Causes include: Sphincter weakness (following childbirth/surgery); Anal/rectal pathology e.g. fistulae, Crohn’s, proctitis; Neurological disease (chorda equine, pudendal nerve); Dementia and unconsciousness; Diarrhoea...

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Functional Bowel Disease (IBS)

Introduction Functional bowel disease (also Irritable bowel syndrome – IBS) refers to a group of symptoms – including abdominal pain and discomfort, bloating and change in bowel habit – for which no underlying cause...

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Gallstones

Introduction Gallstones and biliary disease can be a bit confusing, and there is a lot of overlap. Essentially, gallstones themselves are not problematic in the vast majority of cases, but can predispose the other...

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Gastric Physiology

Introduction The stomach can be roughly divided into two regions, which contain two different lots of cells, with different functions Oxyntic glandular area – this contains oxyntic (parietal cells) that secrete gastric juice and...

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Gastric Tumours

Introduction Unless otherwise stated, the article below refers to gastric adenocarcinoma The second most common cancer worldwide (behind lung cancer) Most common in South America and Japan (due to diet) 8th most common cancer...

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Gastroenteritis

Introduction Gastroenteritis (colloquially known by names names, including gastric flu, “gastro”, vomiting and diarrhoea, “food poisoning”) is a very common presentation to general practice and emergency departments, in people of all ages, but especially in children,...

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GORD – Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

Introduction Gastro-intestinal reflux disease (GORD) is a condition characterised by retrosternal, and sometimes epigastric pain, as a result of reflux of the acidic contents of the stomach into the oesophagus. In the acute presentation it...

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