Read more about the article Diverticulitis
Diverticulum

Diverticulitis

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Summary What is diverticular disease? It is an acquired condition, in which there are small out-pouchings of the mucosa of the large intestine, known as diverticulae. Definitions Diverticulosis – the…

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Read more about the article Dysphagia
Achalasia

Dysphagia

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Introduction Dysphagia literally means ‘trouble swallowing’. It is not a condition in itself, but a symptom. There can be many causes varying from a muscular spasm or neurological cause, to…

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Read more about the article EBV – Epstein Barr Virus
Epsteine Barr Virus. This electron microscopic image of two Epstein Barr Virus virions (viral particles) shows round capsids—protein-encased genetic material—loosely surrounded by the membrane envelope. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

EBV – Epstein Barr Virus

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Introduction Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a type of human herpes virus. It is extremely widespread, and is contracted by close person to person contact. It can cause a wide range…

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Read more about the article Faecal Incontinence
diarrhoea poop emoji

Faecal Incontinence

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Introduction Occurs in 15% aged >65Y, increasing incidence with age in men only. Causes include: Sphincter weakness (following childbirth/surgery); Anal/rectal pathology e.g. fistulae, Crohn’s, proctitis; Neurological disease (chorda equine, pudendal nerve);…

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Read more about the article Gallstones and Biliary Colic
Gallstones as seen after removal

Gallstones and Biliary Colic

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Introduction Gallstones (cholelithiasis) refers to the formation of hard stones in the gallbladder - a process which typically takes years to occur. It is a very common phenomenon which affects about…

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Read more about the article Gastric Physiology
Stomach

Gastric Physiology

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Introduction The stomach can be roughly divided into two regions, which contain two different lots of cells, with different functions Oxyntic glandular area – this contains oxyntic (parietal cells) that…

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Read more about the article Gastric Tumours
Stomach layers

Gastric Tumours

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Introduction Unless otherwise stated, the article below refers to gastric adenocarcinoma The second most common cancer worldwide (behind lung cancer) Most common in South America and Japan (due to diet)…

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Read more about the article Gastroenteritis
Vomiting poop emoji

Gastroenteritis

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Introduction Gastroenteritis (colloquially known by names names, including gastric flu, "gastro", vomiting and diarrhoea, "food poisoning") is a very common presentation to general practice and emergency departments, in people of all ages,…

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Read more about the article GORD – Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
GORD - gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Image modified from original images taken from SMART by Servier Medical Art by Servier and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

GORD – Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

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Introduction Gastro-intestinal reflux disease (GORD) is a condition characterised by retrosternal, and sometimes epigastric pain, as a result of reflux of the acidic contents of the stomach into the oesophagus. In…

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