Amblyopia

Overview Amblyopia is a condition whereby there is a reduction in visual acuity due to a problem with focussing in early childhood. This results in reduced acuity as the brain is not stimulated to...

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Cataracts

A cataract is an opacification of the lens of the eye. Cataracts tend to cause gradual loss of visual acuity, with normal pupillary response. Cataracts are the most common non-refractive cause of visual impairment...

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Dry Eyes

Causes Common in the elderly – reduced tear secretion Persistent gritty sensation without red eye Sjörgen’s syndrome: autoimmune condition, dry eyes and mouth which often accompanies connective tissue disorders e.g. rheumatoid arthritis Diuretics and...

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Enophthalmos

Blowout fracture of the orbit Microphthalmos (defect in embryogenesis, also cataract and refractive errors) Cicatrising metastatic breast carcinoma (rare, progressive enophthalmos associated with very poor prognosis)

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Glaucoma

Introduction  Definition of glaucoma – gradual death of the optic nerve often associated with high intraocular pressure. Increase intraocular pressure is usually due to an imbalance in aqueous humour production and drainage. The Aqueous...

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Keratoconus

Introduction Keratoconus is a common ophthalmological condition seen in practice, affecting around 1 in 450 people in the United Kingdom with a slight predominance in non-caucasians, although all races are affected1. It causes a...

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Lid Disease

Chalazion Granuloma of meibomian glands (reactions to accumulation of lipid following duct blockage) Initially a hard and inflamed lump in the lid, settles to leave a discrete lump, visible on lid eversion Often settle...

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Proptosis

Orbital cellulitis Ophthalmic emergency, infection of soft tissues behind orbital septum extension of infection from periorbital structures (ethmoid sinusitis), face, globe, lacrimal sac or dental infection direct inoculation of orbit from trauma haematogenous spread...

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Ptosis

Introduction Ptosis may be unilateral or bilateral – symmetrical or asymmetrical Upper lid lifted by contraction of levator (CN III) and sympathetic innervation of smooth muscle component Lids closed by orbicularis oculi (CN VII)...

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Pupillary Defects

For a really good demonstration of how this works, see Eye simulator V2.0   Physiology There are two nerves involved in pupillary responses: Optic Nerve (II) – this is the afferent nerve – it...

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