Read more about the article Abdominal Examination
The 9 regions and 4 quadrants of the abdomen. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/17e4eea8-a005-45af-b835-f756a014cd48@3.

Abdominal Examination

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Summary of Abdominal Examination Introduce yourself, check right patient (name DOB, wrist-band) explain that you are going to perform an abdominal examination and what this will involve, and ask the…

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Read more about the article Abdominal X-Ray
Toxic Megacolon on abdominal x-ray

Abdominal X-Ray

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Introduction An abdominal x-ray (AXR) is a commonly performed x-ray for some gastrointestinal presentations. Generally, its use is limited - many abdominal conditions are better diagnosed clinically, or with an…

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Read more about the article Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol abuse and addiction

Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse

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Introduction Alcohol is the most dangerous addictive drug in the world. It kills around 15 Australians every day. Alcohol abuse is widespread in Western Society, and is a common presenting…

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Read more about the article Alcoholic Hepatitis
Mallory body seen on histology. Mallory bodies are eosinophilic inclusions that have a "rope-like" appearance. Note the highlights body on this image. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Alcoholic Hepatitis

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Introduction Alcoholic hepatitis is a very common cause of liver injury. It is caused by excessive alcohol intake. Typically there will be¬†steatosis¬†of the liver. In this pathological change, fat globules…

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Read more about the article Altered Bowel Habit
Altered bowel habit poop emoji

Altered Bowel Habit

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Altered bowel habit is a very common presenting complaint and can be acute or chronic. For further information, also see the articles diarrhoea and constipation. Causes Acute gastroenteritis Simple constipation…

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Read more about the article Autoimmune Hepatitis
Autoimmune Hepatitis histology - showing the characters feature of portal mononuclear cell inflammatory infiltrate extending into the lobule (interface hepatitis).

Autoimmune Hepatitis

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Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a cause of¬†chronic hepatitis.¬†It is also sometimes referred to as¬†chronic active hepatitis. ¬†Any hepatitis that typically lasts >6 months is referred to as¬†chronic. It is…

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Read more about the article Barrett’s Oesophagus
Barretts Oesophagus Histology - characterised by the presence of goblet cells in the oesophagus - which stain blue on the alcaic blue staining slide. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Barrett’s Oesophagus

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Introduction Also known as Columnar Lined oesophagus (CLO) This is a complication of long term oesophageal reflux. It looks a bit like white pasty finger like projections coming up from…

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Read more about the article Bilirubin Metabolism and Jaundice
Jaundice with scleral icterus. This file is taken from wikimedia commons and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Bilirubin Metabolism and Jaundice

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Production of Bilirubin Every haem molecule will produce one molecule of bilirubin. These molecules are found in haemoglobin and myoglobin. Also, cytochrome enzymes will also produce one molecule of bilirubin.…

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Read more about the article Causes of Hepatomegaly
Image of liver showing hepatomeagaly

Causes of Hepatomegaly

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Hepatomegaly describes an¬†enlarged liver.¬†There are many causes of hepatomegaly, and learning some mnemonics might help you to memorise some of them! Sometimes it is associated with an enlarged spleen -…

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