Abdominal Artery Ischaemia and Occlusion

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Also known as Ischaemic Bowel or Mesenteric Ischaemia, this can be the result of many pathologies and can be acute or chronic. Epidemiology Typically occurs in elderly patients Often associated…

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Abdominal Examination
The 9 regions and 4 quadrants of the abdomen. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/17e4eea8-a005-45af-b835-f756a014cd48@3.

Abdominal Examination

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Summary of Abdominal Examination Introduce yourself, check right patient (name DOB, wrist-band) explain that you are going to perform an abdominal examination and what this will involve, and ask the…

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Abdominal X-Ray

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An abdominal x-ray (AXR) is a commonly performed x-ray for some gastrointestinal presentations. Generally, its use is limited - many abdominal conditions are better diagnosed clinically, or with an abdominal…

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Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse

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Introduction Alcohol is the most dangerous addictive drug in the world. It kills around 15 Australians every day. Alcohol abuse is widespread in Western Society, and is a common presenting…

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Alcoholic Hepatitis

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Introduction Alcoholic hepatitis is a very common cause of liver injury. It is caused by excessive alcohol intake. Typically there will be steatosis of the liver. In this pathological change, fat globules…

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Altered Bowel Habit

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Altered bowel habit is a very common presenting complaint and can be acute or chronic. For further information, also see the articles diarrhoea and constipation. Causes Acute gastroenteritis Simple constipation…

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Autoimmune Hepatitis

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Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a cause of chronic hepatitis. It is also sometimes referred to as chronic active hepatitis.  Any hepatitis that typically lasts >6 months is referred to as chronic. It is…

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Barrett’s Oesophagus

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IntroductionAlso known as Columnar Lined oesophagus (CLO)This is a complication of long term oesophageal reflux.It looks a bit like white pasty finger like projections coming up from the bottom of…

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Bilirubin Metabolism and Jaundice

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Production of Bilirubin Every haem molecule will produce one molecule of bilirubin. These molecules are found in haemoglobin and myoglobin. Also, cytochrome enzymes will also produce one molecule of bilirubin.…

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Causes of Hepatomegaly

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Massive = "CRAM"Cancer - primary and secondaryRight heart failureAlcoholic liver disease with fatty infiltrationMyeloproliferative diseases (ie Chronic myeloid laekaemia, PRubraVera,Essential Throbocythaemia) Moderate = "FAILL"  all of the above plusFatty liver…

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