Antepartum Hemorrhage (APH)

Introduction Antepartum hemorrhage (APH) describes any PV bleeding after 24 weeks gestation . There can be many causes, but the most common are placenta praevia and placental abruption All bleeds during pregnancy are associated...

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Bacterial Vaginosis

THE most common cause of pathological vaginal discharge. Can be caused by an overgrowth of many types of bacteria, usually anaerobes. There is alos often a decrease in the number of lactobacilli. Not sexually...

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Caesarian Section

C-section is major surgery, with real risks, and the decision to perform such an operation should not be taken lightly!   Epidemiology Incidence in increasing, mainly due to the increased diagnoses of fetal distress,...

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Cervical Cancer and CIN

Introduction When we talk about cervical cancer, we are typically referring to squamous cell carcinoma. This accounts for about 85-95% of cervical cancer. The remainder is caused by adenocarcinoma. Both types are strongly associated with...

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