Acute Kidney Injury – AKI

Summary Acute Kidney Injury – AKI¬†(formerly more commonly Acute Renal Failure) is a sudden decline in renal function significant enough to produce¬†uraemia, and also often¬†oliguria¬†‚Äď a urine output of <400ml/day.¬†It normally occurs over a...

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Anaemia of Chronic Disease

Introduction Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) is common, particularly in the hospital setting. It occurs as a result of: Chronic infection Chronic inflammation Neoplasia Chronic kidney disease The anaemia is typically: Normochromic – the...

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Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract

Summary The kidneys develop from metanephros. The bladder and urethra develop from the urogenital sinus The prostate develops from an outgrowth of the urethral epithelium Ureters These enter the pelvis at the pelvic inlet,...

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Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)

ADPKD is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the presence of cysts in both kidneys. The cysts are numerous and fluid-filled, resulting in massive enlargement of the kidneys, often with progression to renal failure. The disease...

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Calcium

See also: Calcium, Vitamin D and Bone Density Parathyroid Glands Roles of Calcium Contraction of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle Blood clotting Control of nerve impulses Increases in the level of calcium cause depression...

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Chronic Kidney Disease (Chronic Renal Failure)

Introduction Chronic Kidney Disease – CKD (previously –¬†chronic renal failure)¬†involves a long-standing and often deteriorating reduction in renal function.¬†It is irreversible and generally appears over a period of years. initially, CKD begins as only...

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Control of Renal Function

Summary     Causes retention of… Info Substance Mechanism H2O Na+ K+   Angiotensin-II Activation of angiotensin II is the end result of activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Causes massive vasoconstriction. Also causes the release...

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Diuretics

Normal Control of Renal Function Overview Osmotic Diuretics Potassium Sparing Diuretics Thiazide Diuretics Loop Diuretics Proximal Tubule Diuretics

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Glomerulonephritis (GN)

Introduction¬† This term is often used to describe all pathological conditions of the glomerulus; however, strictly speaking it refers to ‚Äúinflammation of the glomerulus‚ÄĚ. ¬†Glomerulonephritis represents a number of conditions where there is damage...

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Goodpasture’s syndrome (anti-GBM antibody disease)

  This is a rare, genetic, autoimmune condition characterised by a combination of glomerulonephritis with alveolar hemorrhage in the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies. ¬†Circulating anti-GBM antibodies bind to basement membranes...

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