Anatomy and Development of The Urinary Tract

Summary The kidneys develop from metanephros. The bladder and urethra develop from the urogenital sinus The prostate develops from an outgrowth of the urethral epithelium Ureters These enter the pelvis at the pelvic inlet,...

More

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia – BPH

Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia occurs most commonly in men over 60. The term benign prostatic hypertrophy is often used interchangeably with benign prostatic hyperplasia, but is less correct. Hyperplasia refers to an increase in the number of “components”...

More

Catheterisation

Indications Urinary retention Monitor fluid output (e.g. post-op, renal failure, trauma, sepsis, general illness) – in pretty much all seriously ill patients! – also pre-op to measure urine output during op. Investigation – to...

More

Erectile Dysfunction

Introduction Erection requires an intact parasympathetic reflex at S2 and S3. Ejaculation requires an intact sympathetic L1 root. Mnemonic: Erection & ejaculation = Point & Shoot (Para & Sym) Aetiology Organic causes Spinal cord or...

More

Haematuria

Introduction Haematuria is the passing of blood in the urine Frank Haematuriais the presence of blood on macroscopic investigation (i.e. looking at the blood) Microscopic Haematuria – is where you can only see RBC’s...

More

Incontinence

Types of incontinence This is the involuntary loss of urine, that is serious enough to cause a social or hygiene problem. It becomes more prevalent with age, with about 15% of women and 10%...

More

Prostate Cancer

Introduction By the age of 80, >80% of men have prostate cancer It is the second most common cancer in men, and the 4th most common cause of death for men in England and Wales....

More

Prostatitis

Introduction Prostatitis refers to inflammation of the prostate, most commonly a result of infection (either UTI or STI). Prostatitis affects up to 15% of men at some point in the lives. We can divide...

More

PSA – Prostate Specific Antigen

Normal level ~4 It is raised in 80% of patients at age 80. So, in many patients it is raised in normal circumstances Levels increase with age In prostate cancer, levels can rise to...

More