ACE Inhibitors

ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) e.g. ramipril, lisinopril, captopril Mechanism ACE inhibitors competitively inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and thus reduce the generation of angiotensin-II, and also consequently aldosterone. This reduces sodium...

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Amiodarone

Indication and dose Amiodarone is an anti-arrhythmic drug. Used particularly when other drugs have been ineffective or contra-indicated. It is most commonly used in atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter, but is also indicated in:...

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Analgesics

Pain is a common problem, and it is essential that doctors know how to treat it. It is recognised that many psychosocial factors affect people’s perception of pain, in particular of chronic pain. This...

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Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)

Introduction Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are usually used in hypertension, HF and post-MI, usually when an ACE-inhibitor has been ineffective or not tolerated. They are also used ot treat diabetic nephropathy. ACE-Inhibitors often...

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Anti-Histamines

Histamine H1-receptor antagonists These are mostly effective against mast cell activated inflammatory reactions. In asthma, mast cells are involved in the early stages of the reaction, but their role is not great enough to...

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Antibiotics – drug classes and mechanisms

There are many classes of antibiotics. It is useful to know at least a handful of antibiotics, and what they are useful for.  Below we attempt to summarise the main types of antibiotics, their mechanisms...

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Antibiotics Prescribing Guidelines

Introduction These antibiotic guidelines are intended to give a basic overview of the types of antibiotic used to treat various kinds of infection. They should not be used as clinical guidelines. Resistance patterns and drug...

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Anticholinergics

Anticholinergics (aka antimuscarinic agents) are usually inhaled, but can be given IV in hospital. They are used in respiratory conditions as adjuncts to steroids and β2 receptors agonists. It is also worth remembering that many...

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Anticoagulant Therapy

Warfarin Introduction Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist. It is very useful, because unlike heparins, it can be taken orally. Warfarin acts on the extrinsic pathway, whilst heparin acts on the intrinsic pathway. Warfarin...

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Antiemetics

Introduction Antiemetics are widely used on a daily basis both in and out of hospital. Nausea is a common symptom that you will be expected to manage appropriately, in much the same way as...

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