Anaemia of Chronic Disease

Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) is common, particularly in the hospital setting. It occurs as a result of: Chronic infection Chronic inflammation Neoplasia The anaemia is not related to bone marrow, bleeding or haemolysis,...

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Anticoagulant Therapy

Warfarin Introduction Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist. It is very useful, because unlike heparins, it can be taken orally. Warfarin acts on the extrinsic pathway, whilst heparin acts on the intrinsic pathway. Warfarin...

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Autoantibodies

Quick summary of Autoantibodies   Antibody Disease Anti-dsDNA SLE Anti-mitochondrial Primary Biliary Sclerosis ASMA – Anti- smooth muscle antibody Chronic active hepatitis pANCA Ulcerative Colitis cANCA Wegner’s granulomatosis Anti-endomysial / gliadin / transglutamase Celiacs...

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Causes of Splenomegaly

“CHICAGO” C – Cancer H – Haematological malignancies – anaemia, leukaemia, lymphoma, I – Infection (CMV, HEP, HIV, TB, parasitic (malaria)). EBV is the most common community acquired Inflammation – sarcoid, amyloid C – Congestion; portal hypertension A – Autoimmune(RA, SLE)...

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DVT Exam

Introduction Introduce yourself Check you have the right patient Explain what you are going to do Gain consent Wash hands!   Inspection Look around the bed for any mobility aids Look for signs of...

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Essential Thrombocythaemia

Chronic myeloproliferative disorder, persistent increase in platelet count Associated with thrombotic or haemorrhagic complications, average age 60 years Good prognosis, risk of transformation to myelofibrosis and AML Symptoms: may be asymptomatic, burning on the...

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