Achilles Tendinopathy

Introduction The achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body. Tendinopathy and rupture can affect both athletes and those with sedentary lifestyles Achilles tendinopathy is usually an overuse condition, causing pain, swelling and...

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Achilles Tendon Rupture

Introduction The achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body. Tendinopathy and rupture can affect both athletes and those with sedentary lifestyles Acute injury (i.e. rupture) to the achilles tendon usually occurs from...

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Arthritis Definitions

Definitions Arthropathy – means disease of a joint.  Sometimes used synonymously with arthritis, but generally used when referring to joint pathology, and used for specific conditions: Reactive arthropathy – infection in another part of...

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Calcium, Vitamin D and bone density

Calcium 99% in bone, 1% in blood Obtained through diet (mainly dairy products), absorption controlled by vitamin D.   Calcium Regulation Controlled by Parathyroid hormone, secreted from the parathyroid gland. An increase in PTH,...

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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Epidemiology and Aetiology More common in women Typical presentation at age 30-50 Associated with gout, pregnancy, the pill, premenstrual state, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, acromegaly, obesity, amyloidosis Some believe that jobs that involve repetitive flexing...

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Charcot’s Joint

Monoarthritis This is a neuropathic arthropathy it is a progressive degeneration of a weight bearing joint – usually in the ankle. There is usually bone destruction, remodelling and resorption, with ultimately results in deformity....

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Comparison and Summary of Types of Arthritis

Disease Location Examination Presentation Epidemiology Aetiology Investigations Treatment Osteoarthritis Hands, Hips, Knees Poly/ oligo / monoarthritis Pain on joint movement, reduced range of movements. ‘Squaring of the hand’ – deformity of the CMC joint...

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Compartment Syndrome

Introduction Compartment syndrome is a condition that results from swelling of a muscle. The muscle is retained in its fixed volume fascia (its “compartment”), however, and thus the swelling of the muscle causes an...

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Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, formerly known as congenital dislocation of the hip) describes any abnormality found in the neonatal hip joint. The degree of abnormality varies considerably. The problem may arise from...

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