Achilles Tendinopathy

Introduction The Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body. Tendinopathy and rupture can affect both athletes and those with sedentary lifestyles Achilles tendinopathy is usually an overuse condition, causing pain, swelling and...

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Achilles Tendon Rupture

Introduction The Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body. Tendinopathy and rupture can affect both athletes and those with sedentary lifestyles Acute injury (i.e. rupture) to the Achilles tendon usually occurs from...

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Arthritis Definitions

Definitions Arthropathy – means disease of a joint.  Sometimes used synonymously with arthritis, but generally used when referring to joint pathology, and used for specific conditions: Reactive arthropathy – infection in another part of...

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Calcium, Vitamin D and bone density

Calcium 99% in bone, 1% in blood Obtained through diet (mainly dairy products), absorption controlled by vitamin D.   Calcium Regulation Controlled by Parathyroid hormone, secreted from the parathyroid gland. An increase in PTH,...

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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Introduction Carpal tunnel syndrome is a relatively common disorder, which can be unilateral or bilateral, caused by compression of the media nerve at the level oft he wrist. Patients typically initially complain of parasthesia...

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Charcot’s Joint

Introduction Charcot’s Joint (aka Charcot’s osteoarthropathy or Charcot’s neuroarthropathy) is most commonly seen as a complication of diabetes, but is also sometimes seen with syphilis. It is the result of peripheral neuropathy. It results in swelling,...

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Comparison and Summary of Types of Arthritis

Disease Location Examination Presentation Epidemiology Aetiology Investigations Treatment Osteoarthritis Hands, Hips, Knees Poly/ oligo / monoarthritis Pain on joint movement, reduced range of movements. ‘Squaring of the hand’ – deformity of the CMC joint...

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Compartment Syndrome

Introduction Compartment syndrome is a condition that results from swelling of a muscle. The muscle is retained in its fixed volume fascia (its “compartment”), however, and thus the swelling of the muscle causes an...

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